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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (65):
1

How many vertebrae are there, and how many are in each section?

33 in total (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 4 coccygeal)

2

What kind of joints are intervertebral discs?

Fibrocartilagenous (symphysis) joints

3

Which vertebra is vertebra prominens?

C7

4

**Why do cervical vertebrae have more movement compared to lumbar vertebrae?

Because cervical vertebrae have more horizontal facet joints, while lumbar are more vertical facet joints

5

In the SC, which horns are sensory and which are motor?

Anterior/ventral horns are motor (wings) and posterior/dorsal horns and root ganglion are sensory (feet)

6

At which level does the spinal cord end?

L1

7

**What is a myotome?

Specific nerve roots are responsible for specific movements

8

Which nerve roots contribute to sciatic nerve?

L4, L5, S1, S2 and S3

9

Which muscles are the 'erector spinae' muscles?

Iliocostalis, Longissimus thoracic and spinalis thoracis

10

What are the 3 main functions of the lower limb?

Support body weight, locomotion and balance

11

What are the superficial muscles of the gluteal region?

Gluteus maximus, medius and minimus, and tensor fascia latae

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13

What movements do the superficial muscles of the gluteal region enable?

Extension, abduction and medial rotation of the thigh

14

What occurs if the gluteal muscles fail or are injured?

Trendelenburg's Gait (hips drop)

15

Which nerve supplies the gluteus maximus?

inferior gluteal n.

16

What are the deep muscles of the gluteus region?

Piriformis, Obturator internu, Gemilli and Quadratus femoris

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17

Which nerve supplies all superficial gluteal muscles (except gluteus maximus)?

Superior gluteal n.

19

What movements do the deep gluteal muscles enable?

Lateral rotation of the thigh and hip stabilisation

20

What is the nerve supply for the deep gluteal muscles?

Nerves from the sacral plexus

21

Which ligaments form the greater and lesser sciatic foramen?

Sacrotuberous and sacrospinous lig.

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22

Through which passageway do structures pass to get into the gluteal region?

Greater sciatic foramen

23

Through which passageway do structures pass to get into the perineum?

Lesser sciatic foramen

25

Which roots does the sciatic nerve come from?

L4-S3

26

Which roots does the pudendal nerve come from?

S2-4 (S2, 3, 4 - keeps the guts off the floor, as it supplies the urogenital diaphragm)

27

Which roots does the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh come from?

S1-3

28

Which nerves does the sciatic nerve divide to form?

Tibial nerve and Common fibular n.

29

Which compartment of muscles enable flexion of the thigh, and which muscles are inside?

Anterior compartment of the thigh. Pectinous, illiopsoas, sartorius, rectus femoris.

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30

Which compartment of muscles controls extension of the leg and which muscles are inside?

Anterior compartment of the thigh. Quadriceps femoris (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and rectus femoris).

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31

Which compartment of muscles are the adductors of the thigh and which muscles are involved?

Medial compartment of the thigh. Adductor longus, adductor brevis, adductor magnus, gracilis and obturator externus.

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32

True or false, the sciatic nerve supplies areas in the gluteal region

False

33

What are the boundaries for the femoral triangle?

• Superior – Inguinal ligament • Medially – Lateral border of adductor longus • Laterally – Medial border of sartorius • Floor – Iliopsoas and pectineus • Roof – Deep fascia (fascia lata

34

Which compartment of muscles control both extension of the thigh and flexion of the leg, and which muscles are inside?

Posterior compartment of the thigh. Semitendinous, semimembranosus and biceps femoris (hamstrings)

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35

What are the contents of the femoral triangle?

Femoral nerve, artery, vein and then lymphatics (NAVY)

36

Which compartment of muscles controls the dorsiflexion of the ankle and extension of the toes, and which muscles are inside?

Anterior compartment of the leg. Tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallicus longus and fibularis tertius.

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38

Which compartment of muscles enables eversion of the foot and weak plantar flexion of the ankle, and which muscles are involved?

Lateral compartment of the leg. Fibularis longus and fibulas brevis.

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40

Which compartment of muscles are the main plantorflexors , and which muscles are inside?

Superficial group of the posterior compartment of the leg. Gastrocnemius, soles and plantaris.

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41

Which compartment of muscles controls flexion of toes, as well as plantar flexors of the ankle, and which muscles are inside?

Deep group of the posterior compartment of the leg. Popliteus, flexor hallicus longs, flexor digitorum longs and tibialis posterior.

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43

Which nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the thigh?

Femoral n.

44

Which nerve supplies the medial compartment of the thigh?

Obturator n.

45

Which ligaments help strengthen the capsule of the hip joint?

Iliofemoral, pubofemoral and ischiofemoral

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46

What is the arterial supply to the hip joint?

Medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries, as well as branch of obturator as artery to head of femur

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47

What are the 3 articulations of the knee joint?

2x tibiofemoral and 1x patellofemoral

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48

What are the 2 extra capsular ligaments of the knees?

Lateral (fibular) collateral ligament and medial (tibial) collateral ligament

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49

What are the 2 interarticular ligaments of the knees?

Anterior cruciate (ACL) and posterior cruciate (PCL)

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51

Which nerve supplies the posterior compartment of the thigh?

Tibial division of the sciatic n.

53

Which nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the leg?

Deep fibular nerve (L4,5)

55

Which nerve supplies the lateral compartment of the leg?

Superficial fibular n.

58

What are the boundaries for the popliteal fossa?

• Superolaterally – Biceps femoris • Superomedially – Semimembranosus • Inferiorly – Gastrocnemius • Roof – Popliteal fascia

59

Where do the superficial lymphatics drain to in the leg?

(follow saphenous veins) then superficial inguinal nodes then external iliac nodes

60

Where do the deep lymphatics drain to in the leg?

(follow deep veins) then Popliteal nodes, then deep inguinal nodes then external iliac nodes

66

What makes up the calcaneal tendon and where does it attach?

Gastrocnemius and soleus tendon, attaching to the calcaneal tuberosity of the calcaneus

67

What are vena comitantes, particularly in the upper limb?

‘accompanying veins’ which follow the arteries, which eventually form named veins

68

Which nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the arm?

Musculocutaneous n.

69

Which nerve supplies the anterior compartment of the forearm?

Median n.

70

Which nerve supplies the posterior compartment of the arm and forearm?

Radial n.

71

Which artery and vein supplies the anterior compartment of the arm?

Brachial a. and v.

72

Which artery and vein supplies the posterior compartment of the arm?

Profunda brachii a. and v. 

73

Which artery and vein supplies the anterior compartment of the forearm?

Radial and ulnar a. and venae comintantes

74

Which artery and vein supplies the posterior compartment of the forearm?

Interosseous a. and venae comitantes

75

Which artery, vein and supplies the hand?

Deep and superifical palmar arches. Ulnar nerve (with LOAF muscles as exceptions being supplied by the median n.)

76

What are the LOAF muscles, ie. the muscles of the hand which are exceptions by being supplied by the median n. and not the ulnar like the rest of the hand?

  • Lateral two lumbricals
  • Opponens pollicis
  • Abductor pollicis brevis
  • Flexor pollicis brevis

77

Which nerve roots does the brachial plexus come from?

C5-T1

78

Where is the damage in Erb's Palsy, and what movement causes this? What is the typical presentation?

Erb's point - the region where C5 and C6 merge to form the superior trunk. This occurs due to excessive increase in angle between the neck and shoulder, such as in breech birth and rugby. Presents as a 'waiter's tip'

79

What movement causes Klumpke's paralysis and what deficits result?

Occurs due to excessive abduction of the arm and results in paralysis of the hand and loss of fine control. Typically appears as a clawed hand.

80

Which areas does the upper and lower roots each control?

  • Upper roots control more proximal areas of UL i.e. C5-C7 controlupper part of the limb
  • Lower roots more distal areas i.e. C7-T1 controls the hand
  • Used diagnostically
    • More localized, the further down the brachial plexus
    • Also, the greater the area damaged, the closer to the roots the damage is 

81

In the UL, which veins are superficial and which are deep?

  • Subclavian, axillary and venae comitantes are deep veins
  • While cephalic, basilic and median cubital are superficial