Pathology Flashcards Preview

RW Musculoskeletal > Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathology Deck (35):
1

What is the common theme for connective tissue diseases?

Tend to have a hypersensitivity component and are immune based - inflammatory with antibodies

2

Which antigen is associated with lupus?

Anti-double stranded DNA

3

Which antigen is associated with scleroderma?

Anti-centromere and anti-telomere

4

Which antigen is associated with Sjogrens?

Anti Ro La (and anti-nuclear)

5

What condition is ANCA associated with?

Immune mediated vasculitis

6

What are the 2 main types of ANCA?

pANCA (perinuclear) and cANCA (cytoplasmic)

7

**What are the causes and classifications of vasculitis?

Classification is based on vessel size

8

True or False: Giant Cell Arteritis is segmental with skip lesions

True

9

What are the main symptoms of GCA?

Scalp tenderness, temporal headache, clenched jaw and blindness

10

Which size of vessels does Polyarteritis Nodosa affect?

Medium sized

11

What is uric acid the end of the synthesis of?

Purines (eg. adenina and guanine in DNA replication)

12

Side effects of which drugs can cause under-secretion of urate?

Thiazides

13

What is seen histologically in gout?

Negative birefringence – needle shaped crystals

14

What is Paget's disease?

Abnormality of bone turn-over (Increased osteoclastic activity, where more bone then grows but not as structured)

15

What are the 3 histological stages of paget's disease?

Osteoclastic, mixed and burnet out

16

What are signs of Paget's Disease?

Leontiasis ossea (new hats) – wide bowing of the head; Platybasia (skull base abnormality) and Sabre tibia – curved tibia

17

What are the phases of fracture healing?

Initial phases: Haematoma forms with influx of inflammatory cells, after a week a callus forms
2-3 weeks: Callus at its biggest, looks chaotic with woven bone. Some cartilage deposition occurs
Remodelling: Woven bone in callus are remodelled according to the areas of greatest stress

18

What is Avascular Necrosis?

Infarction of the bone leading to ischaemia

19

What is the underlying cause of:
1) Loss of joint space
2) Subchondral sclerosis
3) Sunchondral cysts
4) Osteophytes

1) Cartilage loss
2) Eburnation etc
3) Synovial fluid accumulation
4) Disorganised bone remodelling

20

What is a ganglion cyst?

Lump – often near peripheral joints and near a joint capsule or tendon sheath showing degenerative change within connective tissue (not technically a cyst because it doesnt have their own epithelium)

21

What are common examples of superficial fibromatoses?

Dupuytren's contracture and knuckle pads

22

What are the histological appearances of superficial fibromatoses?

Lots of fibroblasts and spindle cells

23

What are Giant Cell tumours called in a) the digits and b) large joints? What are the differences?

a) Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath b) Pigmented Villonodular synovitis. Similar lesions, but PVS are more difficult to excise and more destructive

24

True or False: Angiolipomas are one of the few subcutaneous lesions which are painful?

True (remember: ANGEL)

25

What does "leiyo-" refer to?

Smooth muscle

26

What does "rhabdo-" refer to?

Skeletal muscle

27

What are 2 examples of syndromes involving lesions of the cartilage?

Oilier's Disease and Maffuci's

28

What are the 3 main paediatric tumour groups?

Sarcomas, lymphomas and brain tumours (while carcinomas are the most common adult)

29

What is the first and second most common primary malignant tumour of the skeletal system?

1) Osteosarcoma
2) Chondrosarcoma

30

Which ages do osteosarcoma most commonly affect?

Paediatric (60% <25y)

31

Whats the classical radiological feature of osteosarcoma?

Corman's triangle

32

What is essential for histological diagnosis of osteosarcoma?

Osteoid production

33

What are the 2 main tumours of uncertain origin?

Synovial sarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma

34

What are the 3 main reactive lesions?

Nodular fascitis, Myositis ossifcans and rheumatoid

35

What are the 5 main groups of granulomatous conditions?

TB, Sarcoidosis, foreign body, Crohns ands rheumatoid