Flashcards in Pathology Deck (35):
What is the common theme for connective tissue diseases?
Tend to have a hypersensitivity component and are immune based - inflammatory with antibodies
Which antigen is associated with lupus?
Anti-double stranded DNA
Which antigen is associated with scleroderma?
Anti-centromere and anti-telomere
Which antigen is associated with Sjogrens?
Anti Ro La (and anti-nuclear)
What condition is ANCA associated with?
Immune mediated vasculitis
What are the 2 main types of ANCA?
pANCA (perinuclear) and cANCA (cytoplasmic)
**What are the causes and classifications of vasculitis?
Classification is based on vessel size
True or False: Giant Cell Arteritis is segmental with skip lesions
What are the main symptoms of GCA?
Scalp tenderness, temporal headache, clenched jaw and blindness
Which size of vessels does Polyarteritis Nodosa affect?
What is uric acid the end of the synthesis of?
Purines (eg. adenina and guanine in DNA replication)
Side effects of which drugs can cause under-secretion of urate?
What is seen histologically in gout?
Negative birefringence – needle shaped crystals
What is Paget's disease?
Abnormality of bone turn-over (Increased osteoclastic activity, where more bone then grows but not as structured)
What are the 3 histological stages of paget's disease?
Osteoclastic, mixed and burnet out
What are signs of Paget's Disease?
Leontiasis ossea (new hats) – wide bowing of the head; Platybasia (skull base abnormality) and Sabre tibia – curved tibia
What are the phases of fracture healing?
Initial phases: Haematoma forms with influx of inflammatory cells, after a week a callus forms
2-3 weeks: Callus at its biggest, looks chaotic with woven bone. Some cartilage deposition occurs
Remodelling: Woven bone in callus are remodelled according to the areas of greatest stress
What is Avascular Necrosis?
Infarction of the bone leading to ischaemia
What is the underlying cause of:
1) Loss of joint space
2) Subchondral sclerosis
3) Sunchondral cysts
1) Cartilage loss
2) Eburnation etc
3) Synovial fluid accumulation
4) Disorganised bone remodelling
What is a ganglion cyst?
Lump – often near peripheral joints and near a joint capsule or tendon sheath showing degenerative change within connective tissue (not technically a cyst because it doesnt have their own epithelium)
What are common examples of superficial fibromatoses?
Dupuytren's contracture and knuckle pads
What are the histological appearances of superficial fibromatoses?
Lots of fibroblasts and spindle cells
What are Giant Cell tumours called in a) the digits and b) large joints? What are the differences?
a) Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath b) Pigmented Villonodular synovitis. Similar lesions, but PVS are more difficult to excise and more destructive
True or False: Angiolipomas are one of the few subcutaneous lesions which are painful?
True (remember: ANGEL)
What does "leiyo-" refer to?
What does "rhabdo-" refer to?
What are 2 examples of syndromes involving lesions of the cartilage?
Oilier's Disease and Maffuci's
What are the 3 main paediatric tumour groups?
Sarcomas, lymphomas and brain tumours (while carcinomas are the most common adult)
What is the first and second most common primary malignant tumour of the skeletal system?
Which ages do osteosarcoma most commonly affect?
Paediatric (60% <25y)
Whats the classical radiological feature of osteosarcoma?
What is essential for histological diagnosis of osteosarcoma?
What are the 2 main tumours of uncertain origin?
Synovial sarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma
What are the 3 main reactive lesions?
Nodular fascitis, Myositis ossifcans and rheumatoid