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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (75):
1

How many bones are in the foot

26 (not including sesamoids)

2

how many joints are in the foot

35

3

Name the accessory ossicles (10)

-os intermetatarsium
-os vesalianum
-os tibiale externum
-os supranaviculare
-os peroneum
-os calcaneus secondarius
-os sustentaculi
-os trigonum
-os subtibiale
-os subfibulare

4

Os intermetatarsium

between 1st cuneiform and 1st- 2nd metatarsal bases

5

Os vesalianum

proximal 5th met base

6

os tibiale externum

accessory navicular

7

os supranaviculare

dorsal aspect of the navicular

8

os peroneum

sesamoid bone in PB tendon

9

os calcaneus secondarius

dorsal anterior process of calcaneus

10

os sustentaculi

posterior aspect of sustentaculum tali

11

os trigonum

posterior aspect of talus

12

os subtibiale

distal to medial malleolus

13

os subfibulare

distal to lateral malleolus

14

Name the avascular necroses (13)

-Renandier
-Trevor
-Theiman
-Freiberg
-Iselen
-Buschke
-Kohler
-Lance
-Diaz
-Severe's
-Blount
-Osgood-schlatter
-Legg-Calve-Perthes

15

Renandier

tibial sesamoid

16

Trevor

fibular sesamoid

17

Theiman

Phalanges

18

Freiberg's

Met heads

19

Iselen

5th metatarsal base

20

Buschke

Cuneiforms

21

Kohler

Navicular

22

Lance

Cuboid

23

Diaz

Talus

24

Severe's

calcaneus

25

Blount

proximal medial tibial epiphysis

26

Osgood-Schlatter

tibial tuberosity

27

Legg-calve-perthes

femoral epiphysis

28

What attaches periosteum to bone

Sharpey fibers

29

What are the different types of coalitions (3)

-syndesmosis: fibrous

-synchondrosis: cartilagenous

-Synostosis: osseous

30

What is the difference between a coalition and a bar

coalition: intra-articular fusion of two bones

bar: extra-articular fusion

31

What is the most common coalition in the foot

distal and missle phalanx of 5th digitis

32

What is the most common coalition in the rearfoot

talocalcaneal

33

What is a steida process

enlarged os trigonum

34

What is the only bone in the foot without any muscle origin or tendon insertion

Talus

35

What are the plantar muscle layers in the foot from superficial to deep

1) abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, abductor digiti minimi

2)quadratus plantae, 4 lumbricals

3) flexor hallucis brevis, adductor hallucis, flexor digiti minimi

4) 3 plantar interossei, 4 dorsal interossei

36

What layer of the foot does FDL run

2nd layer- it is the origin of the lumbricals and the insertion of QP

37

What deformity will result from cutting QP

digits 4 and 5 will become adductovarus

38

How is EDL attached to the proximal phalanxes

sling wraps around capsule which attaches to plantar plate, DTML, and flexor tendon sheath thus attaching to plantar proximal phalanx.

No direct insertion to proximal phalanx

39

What is the origin and insertion of the capsularis tendon

origin- EHL muscle or tendon

Insertion- first MPJ capsule

40

What is the Master Knot of Henry

fibrous connection between FHL and FDL

41

What structures attach to the fibular sesamoid (6)

-plantar MTP ligament

-lateral met-sesamoid ligament

-Intersesamoidal ligament

-phalangeal-sesamoidal ligament

-FHB tendon

-ADH tendon

42

Are the sesamoids capsular or extra-capsular

capsular

43

What is the Lisfranc ligament

attaches lateral aspect of medial cuneiform to medial base of 2nd metatarsal

44

What structures in the Lisfranc joint are not connected by ligaments

1st and 2nd metatarsals

45

What is the spring ligament

Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament

46

What ligaments compose the bifurcate ligaments

-dorsal calcaneonavicular
-calcaneocubiod ligaments

47

Which is stronger-lateral ankle ligaments or the deltoid ligaments

deltoid ligament

48

What are the components of the deltoid ligaments

Superficial- tibionavicular, tibiocalcaneal, posterior tibiotalar

Deep- Anterior tibiotalar

49

What tendons pass over the deltoid ligament

Tibialis posterior and FDL

50

What are the lateral ankle ligaments

anterior talofibular, calcaneofibular, posterior talofibular

51

What angle do the ATFL and CFL create

105 degrees

52

What is the strongest lateral ankle ligament

posterior talofibular

53

Which ankle ligaments are exra-capsular which are capsular

calcaneofibular ligament is extra capsular

all others are capsular

54

What tendons pass over the lateral ankle ligaments

PB and PL

55

what ligaments support the ankle syndesmosis (3)

-AITFL
-PITFL
-interosseous tibiofibular ligament

56

What is the Bassett ligament

AITFL

57

what is another name for the flexor retinaculum

laciniate ligament

58

what is another name for the superior extensor retinaculum

transverse crural ligament

59

What is another name for the inferior extensor retinaculum

cruciate crural ligament

60

Where does plantaris insert

medial aspect of tendo-Achilles into the calcaneus

61

What is the incidence of peroneus quartus

7%

62

What is the Hoke tonsil

fibrous, fatty plug within the sinus tarsi

63

What is pes anserinus

insertion of sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus.

-Where bursa may cause knee pain

64

What is a Bakers cyst

swelling of the bursa between the tendons of the medial head of the gastroc and semimembranosous

65

What is a fabella

sesamoid bone occasionally found in the tendon of lateral head of gastrocnemius

66

What nerves form the sural nerve

-Branch of tibial: medial sural cutaneous

-branch of common peroneal: branch of the lateral sural cutaneous nerve: sural communicating branch

67

Does a neuroma lie dorsal or plantar to the deep transverse intermetatarsal ligament

plantar

68

Where do these muscles run in relation to the deep transverse intermetatarsal ligament

-Interossei
-lumbricals

Interossei- dorsal

lumbricals- plantar

69

What layers of the foot do the plantar nerves run

Medial plantar- in the first layer

Lateral plantar nerve- between 1st and 2nd

70

What do the medial plantar nerve and artery supply

Never LAFF at A FAD

-Medial plantar Nerve
-1st Lumbrical
-ABH
-FHB
-FDB

medial plantar Artery
-FDB
-ABH
-1st Dorsal interossei

71

What are the branches of the femoral nerve

-Nerve to femoral artery

-small muscular to pectineus

Anterior division (cutaneous)
---anterior femoral cutaneous
---nerve to sartorius
---intermediate femoral cutaneous
---medial femoral cutaneous


Posterior division(muscular)
---saphenous
---infrapatellar branch
---medial crural cutaneous
---nerve to rectus femorus
---nerve to vastus medialis
---nerve to vastus intermed
---nerve to vastus lateralis

72

branches of femoral artery (8)

-superficial epigastric

-superficial circumflex iliac

-superficial external pudendal

-deep femoral

-medial femoral circumflex

-lateral femoral circumflex

-descending genicular

-femoral artery becomes popliteal

73

Trace the path of a drop of blood from left ventricle to the hallux(15)

-ascending aorta
-aortic arch
-descending aorta
-thoracic aorta
-abdominal aorta
-common iliac artery
-external iliac artery
-femoral artery
-deep femoral artery
-popliteal artery
-anterior tibial artery
-dorsalis pedis
-1st dorsal metatarsal
-1st common dorsal digital
-1st proper dorsal digital artery

74

Sources of blood to the talus (3)

-superior surface of head and neck:artery of the sinus tarsi and branch from anterior tibial artery or dorsalis pedis

-medial side: artery of tarsal canal and posterior tibial artery

-lateral tubercle: anastamosis of branch of peroneal artery with medial calcaneal branch

75

What are sources of blood supply to tendons

-myotendinous junction
-paratenon
-insertion to bone