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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (36):

List the arterial supply to the upper limb - proximal to distal

Deep brachial
Radial and Ulnar
Deep & superficial palmar arches
Metacarpal and digital arteries


List the arterial supply to the lower limb - proximal to distal

External iliac
Deep femoral
Perforating artery
Femoral artery
Popliteal artery
Anterior tibial artery
Posterior tibial
Dorsalis pedis
Medial and lateral plantar
Metatarsal & digital


How can you reduce blood flow to the arm

Put pressure between the subclavian and the first rib
Important in trauma


What are end arteries

The only blood supply to an area
Untreated occlusion of these arteries leads to infarction
The digital arteries are end


Where is the bifurcation of the common carotid artery

The neck
Anterior to sternocleidomastoid muscle at level of upper border of thyroid cartilage


Where does the brachial artery lie

Medial to biceps tendon in the cubital fossa


Where does the radial artery lie

Lateral to tendon of flexor carpi radialis


Where does the femoral artery lie

Inferior to midpoint of inguinal ligament


Where does the popliteal artery lie

In popliteal fossa (immediately posterior to knee joint)


Where does the posterior tibial artery lie

Between the posterior border of the medial malleolus & the achilles tendon


Where dorsalis pedis artery lie

Medial to tendon of extensor hallucis longus distal to the ankle joint


what is ischaemia

inadequate oxygenation of cells/tissues due to an interruption to blood supply


What can reduce arterial perfusion pressure

Left ventricular failure
Arterial bleed
Arterial rupture (aneurysm)
Occlusion of lumen
Arterial spasm
External compression


What can increase venous drainage pressure

Right (or congestive) cardiac failure
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
External compression


What are the features of superficial veins

Smaller, thinner
Run in superficial fascia
Highly variable
Drain into deep veins
More likely to become varicosed


What are the features of deep veins

Larger, thicker
Run deep to deep fascia
Lie within muscle compartments
More predictable
Occur in neurovascular bundles - lie with artery and nerve


Describe superficial fascia

Loose connective tissue and fat
Varies in depth
Contains superficial blood vessels, cutaneous nerves, lymphatics and sweat glands


Describe deep fascia

Relatively tough and sheet like
Dense connective tissue
Usually white, sometimes glistening appearance
Covers most of the body deep to skin and superficial fascia
Divides limbs into compartments


List the deep fascia of the upper limb

Pectoral fascia


List the deep fascia of the lower limb

Fascia lata = thigh
Iliotibial tract/band - connects hip to outside of leg
Crural fascia - leg


What is the function of deep fascia

Invests muscles
Forms intramuscular septa- compartments
Venous return


Describe the path of the cephalic vein

Arises from dorsal venous network
Travels along the lateral aspect of limb
Enters deltopectoral groove
Drains into axillary vein
Becomes subclavian at lateral border of rib 1


Describe the path of the basilic vein

Arises from dorsal venous network
Medial aspect of limb
Drains into brachial veins by travelling through the deep fascia (level of mid-arm)


Describe the median cubital vein

Connects the cephalic and basilic
Found in the cubital fossa - crook of the elbow
The vein you commonly take blood samples from
Some people have variations where they lack this


Describe the path of the great saphenous vein

Arises from dorsal venous arch
Goes from the medial malleolus
Travels up medial aspect of limb
Drains into femoral vein


Describe the path of the small saphenous vein

Arises from dorsal venous arch - lateral aspect
Travels up posterior midline of leg
Drains into popliteal vein (posterior to knee)


How do you name the deep veins of the limbs

Follow same path and have same names as the arteries


What is Vena Comitantes

When veins surround an artery and are enclosed in a vascular sheath
This keeps the vessels close together - tight
As the artery pulsates, it pushes on the veins and helps blood move up through them
Only occurs in smaller veins – brachial and knee downwards


What is the function of venous valves

Ensure unidirectional blood flow against gravity


What is the musculovenous pump

Blood is pushed back to the heart by skeletal muscle movement when the veins lie in muscular compartments


How does blood from superficial veins drain

Normally flows from superficial veins into deep veins through perforating veins


What leads to varicose veins and DVT

Immobility and venous valve failure
As you age, the deep fascia becomes less rigid and less effective = increased stasis and increased risk
Perforating veins often become insufficient and lead to more blood in the superficial veins - varicose


What causes venous ulceration

Increase in venous pressure damages vessels in the skin
Skin becomes dry, itchy and inflamed but cannot heal well due to poor blood supply
Begins to break down and forms an ulcer
common on medial aspect of lower leg


What is a saddle embolus

When a blood clot - often from a DVT blocks the pulmonary trunk
This leads to complete occlusion of the pulmonary system and arrests circulation


Describe the lymphatics of the upper limb

Have superficial lymph vessels that follow the cephalic and Basilic veins
Cephalic drains to axillary nodes
Basilic drains to cubital then axillary

There are deep vessels that follow the deep veins and drain to the axillary nodes


Describe the lymphatics of the lower limb

the superficial lymph vessels follow the great saphenous veins
The ones following the great s vein drain to superficial inguinal nodes then external iliac or deep inguinal
The ones following the small s vein drain to the popliteal nodes then deep inguinal then external iliac