Anatomy & Physiology Year 1 Flashcards Preview

Barton Peveril A Level PE > Anatomy & Physiology Year 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy & Physiology Year 1 Deck (149):
1

What is the full name for Type 1 Muscle fibres?

Slow Oxidative

2

What is the name for type 2a muscle fibres?

Fast Oxidative Glycolytic

3

What is the name for type 2b muscle fibres?

Fast Glycolytic

4

What type of contraction occurs when there is no change in length?

Isometric

5

What type of contraction where the muscle length shortens to produce force?

Concentric

6

What is the contraction type when the muscle lengthens under tension?

Eccentric

7

What are the three phases of the Cardiac Cycle?

Diastole, Atrial Systole, Ventricular Systole

8

How long does diastole take?

0.4s

9

How long does ventricular systole take?

0.3s

10

How long does atrial systole take?

0.1s

11

What is a motor unit?

A motor neurone and a number of muscle fibres.

12

Where are electrical impulses sent from for muscular contraction?

Central nervous system

13

What is the name of the neurotransmitter that transmits the action potential across the synaptic cleft?

Acetylcholine

14

What happens if the action potential reaches the threshold charge?

All of the muscle fibres in the motor unit will contract or none at all (ALL OR NOTHING LAW).

15

Flexion and extension occur along which plane of movement?

Sagittal

16

Abduction and adduction occur along which plane of movement?

Frontal

17

Horizontal flexion and extension occur along which plane of movement?

Transverse

18

What is heart-rate?

The number of times the ventricles contract in one minute.

19

What is the resting average heart-rate?

70bpm

20

If HR is 60bpm or below, what is this known as?

Bradycardia

21

What is the anticipatory rise of HR?

A slight increase in HR before exercise caused by the release of adrenaline.

22

What happens to HR when oxygen demand is being met?

A steady state is reached or a plateau.

23

What is stroke volume?

The volume of blood ejected from the heart per ventricular contraction.

24

What is an untrained SV volume at rest?

70-90ml per contraction

25

What is a trained SV volume at rest?

90-110ml per contraction

26

At submaximal exercise what is a SV value for an untrained performer?

120-140ml per contraction

27

At submaximal exercise what is a SV value for a trained performer?

160-200ml per contraction

28

What happens to SV at maximal exercise?

A slight drop due to less filling time.

29

What is does Q stand for?

Cardiac output (L/MIN)

30

What is Q at rest?

5L/MIN

31

What is the definition of cardiac output?

Volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute (L/MIN)

32

How is Q calculated?

Q = SV x HR

33

What is Q at submaximal exercise for an untrained performer?

10-15L/MIN

34

What is Q at submaximal exercise for a trained performer?

15-20L/MIN

35

What is Q at maximal exercise for an untrained performer?

20-30L/MIN

36

What is Q at maximal exercise for a trained performer?

30-40L/MIN

37

What is the path of the electrical impulse in the conduction system?

SA Node/Across the atria/AV node/Bundle of His/Purkynje fibres

38

What is Starling's Law?

Stroke Volume (and therefore Q) is directly determined by Venous Return.

39

Identify 5 mechanisms of venous return....

Pocket Valves
Muscle Pump
Respiratory Pump
Smooth Muscle
Gravity

40

What is the name of the mechanism responsible for blood redistribution?

Vascular shunt mechanism

41

During exercise what % of blood goes to the muscles and organs?

80% Muscles 20% Organs

42

During rest what % of blood goes to the muscles and organs?

20% Muscles 80% Organs

43

What is the name of the ring-shaped tissue which allows or prevents blood flow to certain area of the body?

Pre-Capillary Sphincters

44

Which blood vessels vasoconstrict or vasodilate?

Arterioles

45

What is the name of the process of a blood vessel tightening?

Vasoconstriction

46

What is the name of the process of a blood vessel opening?

Vasodilation

47

Which centre is responsible for blood redistribution?

VCC - Vasomotor Control Centre

48

Where is the VCC located?

Medulla Oblongata

49

What type of control is the VCC under?

Autonomic control - Autonomic nervous system

50

Which nervous system does the VCC use?

Sympathetic Nervous System

51

VCC - What do chemoreceptors detect?

Changes in lactic acid, Co2, O2, pH.

52

VCC - What do baroreceptors detect?

Changes in blood pressure

53

What do proprioceptors detect?

Changes in movement

54

Which centre is responsible for the cardiac system?

Cardiac Control Centre - CCC

55

Which two systems does the CCC use?

Sympathetic (increases HR) and Parasympathetic Nervous System (decreases HR)

56

Which nerve is used to speed up HR?

Accelerator Nerve

57

Which nerve is used to slow down HR?

Decelerator or vagus nerve

58

What are the names of the control types from the 321 rule?

Neural-Intrinsic-Hormonal

59

Name the receptors involved in detecting change to inform the CCC.

Proprioceptors, Thermoreceptors, Baroreceptors, Chemoreceptors.

60

What are the two aspects of intrinsic control?

Temperature and Starling's Law

61

How does temperature impact directly on HR?

Increases firing rate of the SA node, increases speed of nerve impulses.

62

According to Starling's Law, what happens if venous return increases?

Increased SV and Q

63

What is the hormone involved in hormonal control of the heart?

Adrenaline from the adrenal gland

64

What is the impact of adrenaline on the heart?

Increased SA node firing rate, increased strength of ventricular contraction.

65

Which nervous system overrides the other to regulate HR?

The parasympathetic nervous system overrides the sympathetic to slow down HR.

66

What does VE stand for?

Minute ventilation (L/MIN)

67

What is minute ventilation?

The volume of air inspired or expired for one minute (L/MIN)

68

At rest what is VE?

7.5L/MIN

69

What can VE reach during exercise?

200L/MIN

70

How do you calculate VE?

VE = TV x f

71

What is TV?

Tidal volume (volume of air inspired per breath)

72

How much is an average TV at rest?

500ml

73

How much is TV during sub-max exercise?

3L

74

How much is TV during maximal exercise?

4L

75

What is breathing frequency (f) during rest?

12-15

76

What is breathing frequency (f) during exercise?

50-60

77

What are baroreceptors known as during the respiratory system?

Stretch receptors

78

What do baroreceptors detect in the respiratory system?

Stretch of the alveolar wall

79

What are the two centres in the RCC?

Inspiratory and expiratory centres

80

What is the acronym to remember breathing mechanics?

MMVPA

81

What does MMVPA stand for?

Muscles Movement Volume Pressure Air

82

What muscles are involved in inspiration at rest?

External intercostal muscles

83

What muscles are involved in inspiration during exercise?

Scalenes, Sternocleidomastoid.

84

What muscles are involved in expiration during exercise?

Internal Intercostal muscles, Rectus Abdominus, Diaphragm, Obliques.

85

What is the name of the space where the air rushes in and out of?

Thoracic Cavity

86

When discussing inspiration and expiration during EXERCISE, what PHRASE must you use in an exam answer?

more than at rest

87

Which nerve sends electrical impulses to the intercostal muscles?

Intercostal nerve

88

Which nerve sends electrical impulses to the diaphragm?

Phrenic nerve

89

What are the main macronutrients?

Protein, Fats, Carbohydrates

90

What are the main micronutrients?

Vitamins, Minerals

91

What percentages are the recommended amount of macronutrients?

Carbohydrates 55%
Protein 15%
Fat 30%

92

What are proteins made up of?

Amino Acids

93

What are the two main types of fats?

Saturated and Unsaturated

94

What are the two types of cholesterol?

High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs)

95

What is the good type of cholesterol?

HDLs

96

What is the recommended daily allowance of calories for a woman?

1940kcal/day

97

What is the recommended daily allowance of calories for a men?

2550kcal/day

98

How do you calculate energy balance?

Energy balance = Energy intake - Energy expenditure

99

What does MET stand for?

Metabolic Equivalent Task

100

How many METS is resting equivalent to?

1 MET

101

In terms of energy expenditure, how many calories is 1 MET equal to.

1 MET = 1kcal per kg per hour.

102

Identify the principles of training.

Moderation, Reversibility, Specificity, Progression, Overload, Variation

103

What are the principles of overload?

Frequency Intensity Time

104

What are the three cycles that make up a periodised training programme?

Macrocycle, Mesocycle, Microcycle

105

How long is a microcycle?

1-3 weeks

106

How long is a mesocycle?

1-4 months

107

How long is a macrocycle?

Usually one whole season eg. 1 year

108

What are the training phases of periodisation?

Preparatory general, Preparatory specific, Competition, Transition.

109

What are the purposes of periodisation?

Organising training, peaking at the right time, avoiding injury and burnout.

110

What is tapering?

Reducing training volume or intensity prior to competition to ensure the performer is ready.

111

What is static flexibility?

Range of motion around a joint without reference to speed of movement.

112

What is dynamic flexibility?

Range of motion around a joint with reference to speed of movement.

113

What are the factors affecting flexibility?

- Type of joint - Length of and elasticity of surrounding tissue - Age - Gender - Injury

114

Name five different flexibility training methods.

Static stretching, dynamic stretching, ballistic stretching, isometric stretching, PNF.

115

How long should static stretches be held for?

10-30 seconds

116

How many times should a static stretch be repeated?

3-6 times

117

How long should an isometric stretch be held for?

7-20 seconds

118

How can you change the intensity with flexibility stretching?

Number of repetitions, the point the stretch is taken to.

119

Name 2 methods of measuring flexibility.

Goniometer, sit and reach test,

120

What is aerobic capacity?

The ability to take in, transport and use oxygen to sustain prolonged periods of aerobic/sub-maximal work

121

What is VO2 Max?

The highest rate of oxygen consumption attainable during one minute of maximal work. Measured in ml/kg/min.

122

How can you measure VO2 Max?

Direct Gas Analysis, Multistage Fitness Test, Queens College Step Test.

123

Name factors that can affect VO2 Max.

Age, Gender, Genetics/Heredity, Aerobic Training.

124

Name the HR training zone to develop basic endurance.

50-60% HR Max

125

Name the HR training zone to burn fat.

60-70% HR Max

126

Name the HR training zone to develop aerobic fitness.

70-80% HR Max

127

Name the HR training zone to develop lactate threshold.

80-90% HR Max

128

Name the HR training zone to develop maximum performance capacity.

90%-100% HR Max

129

How do you calculate heart-rate training zone using the Karvonen Principle?

Target Training HR (bpm) =
Resting HR + % of (HR Max – Resting HR)

130

What is maximum strength?

The maximum force the neuromuscular system can exert in a single voluntary muscular contraction

131

What is elastic/explosive strength?

The ability to expand a maximal amount of energy in one or a series of strong movements

132

What is static strength?

The force is applied against a resistance without any change in muscle length (movement)

133

What is dynamic strength?

The ability of the neuromuscular system to overcome a resistance with a change in length (high speed of contraction)

134

What is strength endurance?

The ability of a muscle to sustain repeated muscular contractions over a period of time without fatiguing

135

Name 4 factors affecting strength

Cross-sectional area, gender, age, fibre type.

136

Name 2 two tests to measure maximal strength

Grip dynamometer, any one rep max test.

137

Name a test to measure explosive strength

Vertical jump test

138

Name 2 tests for to measure strength endurance

NCF Abdominal curl test/Press up cadence test

139

How does plyometric training work?

Eccentrically lengthening of the muscles during the movement to stretch the muscle, immediately followed by a concentric contraction (this results in more force produced).

140

What is the biggest problem with plyometric problem?

Increased risk of injury and DOMS

141

How do you apply frequency to plyometric training?

Number of training sessions per week or number of contacts in a session.

142

How many contacts should there be in a plyometric session for a beginner?

40 contacts

143

How many contacts should there be in a plyometric session for an experienced athlete?

150-200 contacts

144

What is atherosclerosis?

A form of arteriosclerosis that involves a change in the lining of arteries.

High levels of cholesterol and fat deposits form ‘fatty plaques’ on the walls.

This leads to narrowing of the lumen (space within blood vessels) and increases the chances of blood clots.

145

What is angina?

Angina is a partial blockage of the coronary artery.

146

What is a heart attack?

A heart attack is more sudden restriction of O2 / blood supply to the heart muscle wall.

This usually causes permanent damage.

147

Name as many adaptations following strength training as you can.

Neural:
Increased recruitment of motor units (FTG/ FOG)
Improve power output

Muscle and Connective tissue:
increased fibre size (hypertrophy)
Increased no. of fibres (hyperplasia)
Improved strength of connective tissues
Increased bone density

Metabolic function:
Increased ATP/ PC stores
Increased enzyme activity
Better lactic acid buffering capacity

148

What are myoglobin?

Where oxygen is stored in the muscle

149

What are mitochondria?

Where aerobic energy production occurs