Flashcards in Anatomy & Physiology Year 1 Deck (149):
What is the full name for Type 1 Muscle fibres?
What is the name for type 2a muscle fibres?
Fast Oxidative Glycolytic
What is the name for type 2b muscle fibres?
What type of contraction occurs when there is no change in length?
What type of contraction where the muscle length shortens to produce force?
What is the contraction type when the muscle lengthens under tension?
What are the three phases of the Cardiac Cycle?
Diastole, Atrial Systole, Ventricular Systole
How long does diastole take?
How long does ventricular systole take?
How long does atrial systole take?
What is a motor unit?
A motor neurone and a number of muscle fibres.
Where are electrical impulses sent from for muscular contraction?
Central nervous system
What is the name of the neurotransmitter that transmits the action potential across the synaptic cleft?
What happens if the action potential reaches the threshold charge?
All of the muscle fibres in the motor unit will contract or none at all (ALL OR NOTHING LAW).
Flexion and extension occur along which plane of movement?
Abduction and adduction occur along which plane of movement?
Horizontal flexion and extension occur along which plane of movement?
What is heart-rate?
The number of times the ventricles contract in one minute.
What is the resting average heart-rate?
If HR is 60bpm or below, what is this known as?
What is the anticipatory rise of HR?
A slight increase in HR before exercise caused by the release of adrenaline.
What happens to HR when oxygen demand is being met?
A steady state is reached or a plateau.
What is stroke volume?
The volume of blood ejected from the heart per ventricular contraction.
What is an untrained SV volume at rest?
70-90ml per contraction
What is a trained SV volume at rest?
90-110ml per contraction
At submaximal exercise what is a SV value for an untrained performer?
120-140ml per contraction
At submaximal exercise what is a SV value for a trained performer?
160-200ml per contraction
What happens to SV at maximal exercise?
A slight drop due to less filling time.
What is does Q stand for?
Cardiac output (L/MIN)
What is Q at rest?
What is the definition of cardiac output?
Volume of blood ejected from the heart per minute (L/MIN)
How is Q calculated?
Q = SV x HR
What is Q at submaximal exercise for an untrained performer?
What is Q at submaximal exercise for a trained performer?
What is Q at maximal exercise for an untrained performer?
What is Q at maximal exercise for a trained performer?
What is the path of the electrical impulse in the conduction system?
SA Node/Across the atria/AV node/Bundle of His/Purkynje fibres
What is Starling's Law?
Stroke Volume (and therefore Q) is directly determined by Venous Return.
Identify 5 mechanisms of venous return....
What is the name of the mechanism responsible for blood redistribution?
Vascular shunt mechanism
During exercise what % of blood goes to the muscles and organs?
80% Muscles 20% Organs
During rest what % of blood goes to the muscles and organs?
20% Muscles 80% Organs
What is the name of the ring-shaped tissue which allows or prevents blood flow to certain area of the body?
Which blood vessels vasoconstrict or vasodilate?
What is the name of the process of a blood vessel tightening?
What is the name of the process of a blood vessel opening?
Which centre is responsible for blood redistribution?
VCC - Vasomotor Control Centre
Where is the VCC located?
What type of control is the VCC under?
Autonomic control - Autonomic nervous system
Which nervous system does the VCC use?
Sympathetic Nervous System
VCC - What do chemoreceptors detect?
Changes in lactic acid, Co2, O2, pH.
VCC - What do baroreceptors detect?
Changes in blood pressure
What do proprioceptors detect?
Changes in movement
Which centre is responsible for the cardiac system?
Cardiac Control Centre - CCC
Which two systems does the CCC use?
Sympathetic (increases HR) and Parasympathetic Nervous System (decreases HR)
Which nerve is used to speed up HR?
Which nerve is used to slow down HR?
Decelerator or vagus nerve
What are the names of the control types from the 321 rule?
Name the receptors involved in detecting change to inform the CCC.
Proprioceptors, Thermoreceptors, Baroreceptors, Chemoreceptors.
What are the two aspects of intrinsic control?
Temperature and Starling's Law
How does temperature impact directly on HR?
Increases firing rate of the SA node, increases speed of nerve impulses.
According to Starling's Law, what happens if venous return increases?
Increased SV and Q
What is the hormone involved in hormonal control of the heart?
Adrenaline from the adrenal gland
What is the impact of adrenaline on the heart?
Increased SA node firing rate, increased strength of ventricular contraction.
Which nervous system overrides the other to regulate HR?
The parasympathetic nervous system overrides the sympathetic to slow down HR.
What does VE stand for?
Minute ventilation (L/MIN)
What is minute ventilation?
The volume of air inspired or expired for one minute (L/MIN)
At rest what is VE?
What can VE reach during exercise?
How do you calculate VE?
VE = TV x f
What is TV?
Tidal volume (volume of air inspired per breath)
How much is an average TV at rest?
How much is TV during sub-max exercise?
How much is TV during maximal exercise?
What is breathing frequency (f) during rest?
What is breathing frequency (f) during exercise?
What are baroreceptors known as during the respiratory system?
What do baroreceptors detect in the respiratory system?
Stretch of the alveolar wall
What are the two centres in the RCC?
Inspiratory and expiratory centres
What is the acronym to remember breathing mechanics?
What does MMVPA stand for?
Muscles Movement Volume Pressure Air
What muscles are involved in inspiration at rest?
External intercostal muscles
What muscles are involved in inspiration during exercise?
What muscles are involved in expiration during exercise?
Internal Intercostal muscles, Rectus Abdominus, Diaphragm, Obliques.
What is the name of the space where the air rushes in and out of?
When discussing inspiration and expiration during EXERCISE, what PHRASE must you use in an exam answer?
more than at rest
Which nerve sends electrical impulses to the intercostal muscles?
Which nerve sends electrical impulses to the diaphragm?
What are the main macronutrients?
Protein, Fats, Carbohydrates
What are the main micronutrients?
What percentages are the recommended amount of macronutrients?
What are proteins made up of?
What are the two main types of fats?
Saturated and Unsaturated
What are the two types of cholesterol?
High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs) and Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs)
What is the good type of cholesterol?
What is the recommended daily allowance of calories for a woman?
What is the recommended daily allowance of calories for a men?
How do you calculate energy balance?
Energy balance = Energy intake - Energy expenditure
What does MET stand for?
Metabolic Equivalent Task
How many METS is resting equivalent to?
In terms of energy expenditure, how many calories is 1 MET equal to.
1 MET = 1kcal per kg per hour.
Identify the principles of training.
Moderation, Reversibility, Specificity, Progression, Overload, Variation
What are the principles of overload?
Frequency Intensity Time
What are the three cycles that make up a periodised training programme?
Macrocycle, Mesocycle, Microcycle
How long is a microcycle?
How long is a mesocycle?
How long is a macrocycle?
Usually one whole season eg. 1 year
What are the training phases of periodisation?
Preparatory general, Preparatory specific, Competition, Transition.
What are the purposes of periodisation?
Organising training, peaking at the right time, avoiding injury and burnout.
What is tapering?
Reducing training volume or intensity prior to competition to ensure the performer is ready.
What is static flexibility?
Range of motion around a joint without reference to speed of movement.
What is dynamic flexibility?
Range of motion around a joint with reference to speed of movement.
What are the factors affecting flexibility?
- Type of joint - Length of and elasticity of surrounding tissue - Age - Gender - Injury
Name five different flexibility training methods.
Static stretching, dynamic stretching, ballistic stretching, isometric stretching, PNF.
How long should static stretches be held for?
How many times should a static stretch be repeated?
How long should an isometric stretch be held for?
How can you change the intensity with flexibility stretching?
Number of repetitions, the point the stretch is taken to.
Name 2 methods of measuring flexibility.
Goniometer, sit and reach test,
What is aerobic capacity?
The ability to take in, transport and use oxygen to sustain prolonged periods of aerobic/sub-maximal work
What is VO2 Max?
The highest rate of oxygen consumption attainable during one minute of maximal work. Measured in ml/kg/min.
How can you measure VO2 Max?
Direct Gas Analysis, Multistage Fitness Test, Queens College Step Test.
Name factors that can affect VO2 Max.
Age, Gender, Genetics/Heredity, Aerobic Training.
Name the HR training zone to develop basic endurance.
50-60% HR Max
Name the HR training zone to burn fat.
60-70% HR Max
Name the HR training zone to develop aerobic fitness.
70-80% HR Max
Name the HR training zone to develop lactate threshold.
80-90% HR Max
Name the HR training zone to develop maximum performance capacity.
90%-100% HR Max
How do you calculate heart-rate training zone using the Karvonen Principle?
Target Training HR (bpm) =
Resting HR + % of (HR Max – Resting HR)
What is maximum strength?
The maximum force the neuromuscular system can exert in a single voluntary muscular contraction
What is elastic/explosive strength?
The ability to expand a maximal amount of energy in one or a series of strong movements
What is static strength?
The force is applied against a resistance without any change in muscle length (movement)
What is dynamic strength?
The ability of the neuromuscular system to overcome a resistance with a change in length (high speed of contraction)
What is strength endurance?
The ability of a muscle to sustain repeated muscular contractions over a period of time without fatiguing
Name 4 factors affecting strength
Cross-sectional area, gender, age, fibre type.
Name 2 two tests to measure maximal strength
Grip dynamometer, any one rep max test.
Name a test to measure explosive strength
Vertical jump test
Name 2 tests for to measure strength endurance
NCF Abdominal curl test/Press up cadence test
How does plyometric training work?
Eccentrically lengthening of the muscles during the movement to stretch the muscle, immediately followed by a concentric contraction (this results in more force produced).
What is the biggest problem with plyometric problem?
Increased risk of injury and DOMS
How do you apply frequency to plyometric training?
Number of training sessions per week or number of contacts in a session.
How many contacts should there be in a plyometric session for a beginner?
How many contacts should there be in a plyometric session for an experienced athlete?
What is atherosclerosis?
A form of arteriosclerosis that involves a change in the lining of arteries.
High levels of cholesterol and fat deposits form ‘fatty plaques’ on the walls.
This leads to narrowing of the lumen (space within blood vessels) and increases the chances of blood clots.
What is angina?
Angina is a partial blockage of the coronary artery.
What is a heart attack?
A heart attack is more sudden restriction of O2 / blood supply to the heart muscle wall.
This usually causes permanent damage.
Name as many adaptations following strength training as you can.
Increased recruitment of motor units (FTG/ FOG)
Improve power output
Muscle and Connective tissue:
increased fibre size (hypertrophy)
Increased no. of fibres (hyperplasia)
Improved strength of connective tissues
Increased bone density
Increased ATP/ PC stores
Increased enzyme activity
Better lactic acid buffering capacity
What are myoglobin?
Where oxygen is stored in the muscle