Flashcards in Skill Acquisition & Sport Psychology Year 2 ONLY Deck (50)
Name two memory models
Atkinson and Shiffrin's Multi-Store Memory Model
Craik & Lockhart's Levels of Processing Model
What are the stages of Atkinson and Shiffrin's Multi-Store Memory Model?
(Short Term) Sensory Store
Short Term Memory
Long Term Memory
Describe the (short-term) sensory store.
All information in the form of stimuli from our display enters the brain
Short Term Sensory Store has large capacity
Info held for short time (0.25-1 sec) before it is filtered
What happens during selective attention?
Where important information (or cues) is filtered from irrelevant information
Describe the short-term memory.
Limited information can be stored here (5-9 items)
Held for approx 30 secs
Rehearsal must take place to hold information for longer
Information held through process of chunking
Describe the long-term memory.
Information held for long time
Stored information has been encoded
Helped if information has association or meaning.
What word is used to describe important information being sent from the STM to the LTM?
What word is used to describe important infomation being sent from the LTM to the STM?
Decoding or Retrieval
What are the advantages of the Multi-Store Memory Model?
Simplifies to understand
Explains how an individual can deal with large amounts of info.
Gives a realistic answer to how an individual deals with / filters lots of information that they take in (from their surroundings) i.e. with sensory memory filtering information before it enters the STM
Explains how those with brain damage can suffer from dysfunctional memory
Explains how people with memory conditions can remember things from long ago but not what just happened
LTM explains how an individual can perform a skill that they haven’t done for a long time, (e.g. riding a bike)
It is true that info that is repeated /chunked is more likely to be stored in LTM
What are the disadvantages to the Multi-Store Memory Model?
Model is too simple or hasn’t been proven
Does not explain why an individual might remember one type of information but not another, e.g. a coach’s explanation but not a diagram
Evidence suggests STM is not a unitary store/ has separate parts
Does not prove the distinction between STM and LTM or does not effectively explain the interaction between STM and LTM
Does not quantify how much repetition results in LTM storage or not everything that is repeated is stored in the LTM or some people will remember things they look at once
Doesn’t account for individual differences in capacity / duration
Doesn’t account for interest/ motivation/ concentration/ understanding and it’s effect on memory
Craik and Lockhart’s levels of processing model is better at explaining how depth of processing affects memory
What is Craik and Lockhart's Levels of Processing Model based on?
How DEEP memories are stored (DEPTH)
What are the 3 levels in the Levels of Processing Model?
Involves paying attention to what the word looks like (shallow level of processing)
Processing sounds of words
Actual meaning of words (deepest level)
What are the advantages of the Levels of Processing Model?
Explains well how we retain things we understand or have meaning
Explains that the longer and deeper we consider info the more we retain it
What are the disadvantages of the Levels of Processing Model?
Longer time taken to process info does NOT always lead to better recall
Difficulty defining what ‘deep’ processing actually involves
Doesn’t account for individual differences
What is an attribution?
The perceived cause of success or failure?
Who gets credited with attribution theory?
What are the two main variables of attribution theory?
Locus of Control & Causality
What are the four types of attribution?
On Weiner's model of attribution what are the examples for each attribution type?
Internal/Stable - Ability
Internal/Unstable - Effort
External/Stable - Task Difficulty
External/Unstable - Luck
Why would you attribute failure to external causes?
Sustains confidence, self-esteem
Reassures success is possible in the future
Takes away the responsibility for failure
Why would you attribute success to internal causes?
Elevates confidence & pride
Endorses expectations of achievement
Used to reinforce success
Name the type of behaviour describes that of low achievers?
Name the type of behaviour describes that of high achievers?
What is learned helplessness?
The belief that failure is inevitable and the individual has no control over the factors that cause failure
What is it called when you try to use attribution theory to change the reasons for failure from negative into a positive?
Define confidence in sport.
The belief/general disposition an individual has about their ability to be successful in sport
What is the impact of high sports confidence?
High sports confidence makes you more likely to achieve positive outcomes in sport/be skillful/be successful/take risk /be competitive/achieve peak flow.
High sports confidence will make you more likely to take part/ compete/not feel inhibited/enjoy team activities/volunteer for roles/ show approach behaviours/try new activities.
High self confidence in a leader is likely to help performers they lead to participate or perform well.
If talented people with low confidence were encouraged they might experience success and enjoy participating more.
BUT, over confidence or complacency could cause underperformance
What is the impact of low sports confidence?
Low sport confidence has a negative effect on the outcome or causes poor performance/underachievement.
Low sports confidence makes you less likely to participate in sport /compete in sport/try hard/attempt sports activities/volunteer for tasks/show avoidance behaviours.
Low sports confidence could cause disruptive behaviour hindering others.
Low sports confidence could cause people to not try sports / activities that they might actually be very good at / never realised their talent.
If people with low sports confidence were pushed into it (through school/parents) they would not be very motivated and therefore are likely to experience negative outcomes
What is self-efficacy?
The self confidence we feel in specific situations