Flashcards in Skill Acquisition & Sport Psychology Year 1 Deck (112)
Using CEMPOD identify the six skill continua.
Continuity, Environmental, Muscular Involvement, Pacing, Organisation, Difficulty.
What is a motor programme?
A series of sub-routines stored in the long-term memory.
What is a sub-routine?
An individual movement or component of a skill or technique.
Describe an Open Skill
The environment is changing & others affect the skill.
Much information to process
Often externally paced
Skills will require variations
Movements will require adjustments
Describe a Closed Skill
Not affected by the environment
Stable and predictable
Describe a Gross Skill
Involves large muscle movements
Involves large muscle groups
Major body movement skills
Describe a Fine Skill
Involve small muscle movements
Involve small muscle groups
Small bodily movements
Describe a Discrete Skill
Skill has a definite beginning and end
Usually brief in nature – a single skill
If a skill is repeated, have to start from the beginning
Describe a Serial Skill
A number of discrete skills put together to make a sequence or series
The order in which the distinct elements is important
Each movement is both a stimulus and a response
Describe a Continuous Skill
No clear beginning or end of skill
Activity continues for unspecified time
Usually performed for a longer period of time
Describe a Self-Paced Skill
A performer decides when to perform or start the skill
Performer decided the rate at which the skill is performed
More closed skills e.g. shot put
Describe an Externally-Paced Skill
Performance of the action is determined by external sources
Involves the performer in reaction
More open skill (e.g. white water canoeing)
Describe a Simple Skill
Little information or stimuli to process.
Time to use feedback.
Describe a Complex Skill
Large amounts of information to process
Affected by the environment
Less time to use feedback
Many sub-routines to perform in correct order at correct time
Describe a High Organisation Skill
Skill cannot be split into sub-routines
Sub-routines have to be practised as part of whole movement
Describe a Low Organisation Skill
Sub-routines can be easily identified from overall movement
Sub-routines can be practised in isolation from overall movement
What are the 3 phases of learning?
Cognitive, Associative, Autonomous
Describe a learner in the cognitive phase
The learner is trying to create a ‘mental picture’ of the skill
Lots of trial and error
Essential that success reinforced by performer experiencing success or being told by the coach/ teacher
Describe a learner in the associative phase
Performer practices the skills and compares or associated movements with the mental mage
Feedback occurs (intrinsic and extrinsic)
Beginners start to eliminate mistakes, and refine skills.
Motor programmes aren't grooved
Describe a learner in the autonomous phase
Movements becoming automatic or subconscious
Distractions ignored (selective attention)
Focus on tactical strategies
Motor programmes fully grooved and stored in LTM.
Identify 4 types of guidance
Visual, Verbal, Manual, Mechanical.
What is the difference between manual & mechanical guidance?
Manual - Physical support and movement from the teacher/coach.
Mechanical - Using equipment to support motor development.
Identify 8 methods of practice
Whole Part Whole
What is whole practice?
Practice by doing the total or complete or entire movement/not breaking skill into subroutines or parts
What is part practice?
Practice by splitting or breaking down skill into subroutines or sections
What is whole part whole practice?
Practice the complete skill, then split it into subroutines, and then practice complete skill again.
What is progressive part practice?
Practice in stages that are linked or chained.
What is massed practice?
No or very few rest intervals
What is distributed practice?
Regular breaks built into practice