Anatomy & Physiology Year 2 ONLY Flashcards Preview

Barton Peveril A Level PE > Anatomy & Physiology Year 2 ONLY > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy & Physiology Year 2 ONLY Deck (75):
1

What is the only form of USABLE energy in the body?

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

2

Which enzyme breaks down ATP?

ATPase

3

What does the breakdown of ATP result in?

ADP + P + ENERGY

4

What type of reaction is the breakdown of ATP?

Exothermic

5

What is an exothermic reaction?

A compound is broken down into smaller elements as energy is released

6

How long does the ATP stored in the body last?

Approximately 3 seconds

7

Which systems works to resynthesise ATP once the body's stores run out?

ATP-PC system

8

What is the source of the ATP-PC system?

Phosophocreate (PC)

9

Which enzyme breaks down PC?

Creatine kinase

10

What does the breakdown of PC produce?

Creatine, Phopshate & ENERGY

11

What is the purpose of the energy produced through the breakdown of PC?

To help resynthesise ADP + P into ATP

12

Where does the coupled reaction involved in the ATP-PC system take place?

Muscle sarcoplasm

13

What three types of reaction are involved in the ATP-PC system?

Endothermic, Reversible, Coupled

14

What is an endothermic reaction?

When a group of elements combine to form a compound/the reaction ABSORBS energy

15

What is a coupled reaction?

Where the products of one reaction are used by another

16

Where is there an example of a coupled reaction in the ATP-PC system?

Where the products of the breakdown of PC (Exothermic) are used to resynthesise ADP into ATP (Endothermic)

17

How much PC is there stored in the body?

Approximately 8 seconds

18

Describe 5 advantages of the ATP-PC system

- Provides ATP quickly
- Provides energy for fast, high intensity activities.
- No harmful by-products
- PC readily available in muscle cell
- No delay for oxygen

19

Describe 3 disadvantages of the ATP-PC system

- Only a small amount of PC stored in muscle cells
- Small amount of ATP is resynthesized (1 mole)
- Only provides energy for maximum of 8-10 seconds

20

What is the energy yield of the ATP-PC system?

1:1

21

What is the main source/fuel for the Glycolytic System?

Stored muscle GLYCOGEN

22

What is the name of the enzyme that converts stored Glycogen into Glucose?

Glycogen Phosphorylase (GPP)

23

What is glucose converted into in the glycolytic system?

Pyruvic Acid

24

What is the name of the enzyme that converts glucose into pyruvic acid?

Phosphofructokinase (PFK)

25

What is also produced as a result of converting glucose into pyruvic acid?

2 ATP

26

If there insufficient oxygen, the glycolytic system is likely to be dominant. In this case what is pyruvic acid converted into?

Lactic acid

27

What is the name of the enzyme that converts pyruvic acid into lactic acid?

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)

28

What is the energy yield of the glycolytic system?

1:2

29

Where does the glycolytic system take place?

Muscle sarcoplasm

30

When does the glycolytic system begin to be dominant?

At around 10 seconds of intense exercise

31

Name 4 advantages of the glycolytic system.

- Energy can be provided quickly for activities up to 3 minutes
- Oxygen is not required so there is no delay
- Large amount of stored glycogen can provide more ATP than stores of PC
- Lactic acid can be recycled for further energy production

32

Name 4 disadvantages of the glycolytic system.

- Lactic acid (Hydrogen Ions) inhibits muscular contraction
- OBLA (causes fatigue)
- By product Lactic Acid reduces pH and prevents enzyme function
- Relatively low ATP yield with long recovery

33

What is OBLA and when does it usually occur?

Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation: The point at which blood lactate levels significantly increase and fatigue sets in - 4mmol/l

34

What happens when you reach the lactate threshold?

When lactate production exceeds rate of removal

35

When sufficient oxygen is available, which energy system is could be dominant if the intensity is not high?

Aerobic system

36

What happens to Pyruvic Acid instead of converting to lactic acid if oxygen is available?

It combines with Coenzyme A to become Acetyl CoA.

37

How can you remember the path of Pyruvic Acid into the Kreb's Cycle?

PCAOC (Peacock). Pyruvic acid + CoenzymeA = Acetyl CoA. Then, acetyl CoA + Oxaloacetic acid = Citric Acid

38

What happens to Citric Acid in the aerobic system?

It enters the Kreb's Cycle.

39

Where does the Kreb's Cycle take place?

Matrix of the Mitochondria.

40

What are the three phases of the aerobic system?

1. Aerobic Glycolysis
2. Kreb's Cycle
3. Electron Transport Chain

41

What happens in the Kreb's Cycle?

Citric Acid enters, Co2 is released, Hydrogen atoms are produced, 2ATP is produced, Oxaloacetic Acid is produced.

42

Where does the Electron Transport Chain take place?

Mitochondria Cristae

43

What is the first substance to enter the Electron Transport Chain?

Hydrogen

44

What carries Hydrogen into the Electron Transport Chain?

NADs and FADs

45

What do NADS and FADS become when they combined with Hydrogen?

NADH and FADH

46

What happens in the Electron Transport Chain?

Hydrogen in split into Hydrogen ions, which combine with Oxygen to produce H20 and 34 ATP.

47

What is the energy yield of the aerobic system?

1:38
2 ATP from Aerobic Glycolysis
2 ATP from the Kreb's Cycle
34 ATP from the ETC

48

What other substance does the aerobic energy system use as a source/fuel?

Body fat

49

What is the name of the fats that are used in the aerobic system?

Triglycerides (broken down by lipase) into Free Fatty Acids (FFAs)

50

What is thus process known as?

Beta-oxidation

51

What is an advantage of using fats as an energy source?

Much larger quantities of ATP are produced

52

What are the disadvantages of using fats as an energy source?

- Large amounts of oxygen are needed
- It takes a long time
- It can't be relied upon for a sudden burst of high intensity activity

53

Which energy systems contribute to physical activity?

They ALL contribute to ALL physical activity but one is likely to be dominant.

54

What 5 factors contribute towards determining the dominant energy system?

- Duration of activity
- Intensity of activity
- Availability of fuel source
- Availability of oxygen
- The fitness level/physiological adaptations of the performer

55

What is EPOC?

Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption

56

What are the two components of recovery or EPOC?

Fast-Alactacid Recovery/Slow-Lactactic Recovery

57

Which type of exercise has a higher oxygen demand and thus greater EPOC?

Anaerobic rather than Aerobic

58

What are the processes behind alactic debt/recovery?

- Fast recovery and occurs first
- Consumes 1-4L of O2
- Takes 1-3 minutes
- Replenshises blood O2
- Relinks oxygen in the muscle myoglobin
- Replenishes ATP and PC stores

59

What are the processes behind lactic debt/recovery?

- Slower recovery and occurs second
- Consumes 5-8L of O2
- Takes between 1-24 hours
- Removes lactic acid and replenishes glycogen
- Provides energy for ventilation and circulation
- Regulates temperature

60

What are the work:rest ratios in the following scenarios?
- Power/Explosive training
- Lactate threshold
- Aerobic work/Continuous training

- 1:3
- 1:2
- 1:1

61

What is the work:rest ratio for plyometric training?

1:5

62

Identify 7 methods for to enhance recovery

- Warm up
- Active recovery (cool down)
- Cooling aids
- Intensity of training
- Work: rest ratios
- Tactics
- Nutrition

63

What height is considered at altitude?

1500m

64

What is the minimum altitude necessary for optimal acclimatisation?

2000m

65

What happens to the partial pressure of oxygen at altitude?

PPO2 is much lower.

66

Identify 6 immediate impacts of altitude on the body (acclimatization).

- Within the first few hours of exposure to altitude
- Blood volume decreases (by up to 25%)
- SV decreases (increasing HR)
- Slightly raises Q (cardiac output)
- Rate of O2 diffusion decrease
- Reduces Hb saturation
- Increases breathing frequency
- Maximal Q, SV and HR decreases

67

What are the three main stages of altitude?

1. Acclimatization
2. Training
3. Recovery

68

What is the immediate impact of altitude on anaerobic performance eg. sprinting, throwing, jumping?

Either UNAFFECTED or performance IMPROVES depending on the event.

69

What is the immediate impact of altitude on aerobic performance?

Performance DETERIORATES

70

Do athletes have to spend the entire time at altitude?

No they can come down from altitude to sleep below an altitude of 300m.

71

What immediate impacts does altitude have on lactic acid production?

Increases lactic acid production as a result of reduced oxygen and induces earlier OBLA.

72

What is the normal human body temperature?

37 Degrees

73

What negative impacts can heat have on the body?

- Fluid loss
- Dehydration
- Reduced O2 to working muscles
- Strain on CV system
- Muscle cramps
- Early fatigue
- Increased mucous production
- Airway constriction
- Decreased volume of gas exchange

74

What is cardiovascular drift caused by?

Dehydration caused by sweating as a result of the body cooling itself (thermoregulation).

This increases blood viscosity (thickness) which causes the heart to work harder to meet oxygen demand.

75

What impact does cardiovascular drift have on the heart?

Increased HR