Flashcards in Anatomy & Physiology Year 2 ONLY Deck (75):
What is the only form of USABLE energy in the body?
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Which enzyme breaks down ATP?
What does the breakdown of ATP result in?
ADP + P + ENERGY
What type of reaction is the breakdown of ATP?
What is an exothermic reaction?
A compound is broken down into smaller elements as energy is released
How long does the ATP stored in the body last?
Approximately 3 seconds
Which systems works to resynthesise ATP once the body's stores run out?
What is the source of the ATP-PC system?
Which enzyme breaks down PC?
What does the breakdown of PC produce?
Creatine, Phopshate & ENERGY
What is the purpose of the energy produced through the breakdown of PC?
To help resynthesise ADP + P into ATP
Where does the coupled reaction involved in the ATP-PC system take place?
What three types of reaction are involved in the ATP-PC system?
Endothermic, Reversible, Coupled
What is an endothermic reaction?
When a group of elements combine to form a compound/the reaction ABSORBS energy
What is a coupled reaction?
Where the products of one reaction are used by another
Where is there an example of a coupled reaction in the ATP-PC system?
Where the products of the breakdown of PC (Exothermic) are used to resynthesise ADP into ATP (Endothermic)
How much PC is there stored in the body?
Approximately 8 seconds
Describe 5 advantages of the ATP-PC system
- Provides ATP quickly
- Provides energy for fast, high intensity activities.
- No harmful by-products
- PC readily available in muscle cell
- No delay for oxygen
Describe 3 disadvantages of the ATP-PC system
- Only a small amount of PC stored in muscle cells
- Small amount of ATP is resynthesized (1 mole)
- Only provides energy for maximum of 8-10 seconds
What is the energy yield of the ATP-PC system?
What is the main source/fuel for the Glycolytic System?
Stored muscle GLYCOGEN
What is the name of the enzyme that converts stored Glycogen into Glucose?
Glycogen Phosphorylase (GPP)
What is glucose converted into in the glycolytic system?
What is the name of the enzyme that converts glucose into pyruvic acid?
What is also produced as a result of converting glucose into pyruvic acid?
If there insufficient oxygen, the glycolytic system is likely to be dominant. In this case what is pyruvic acid converted into?
What is the name of the enzyme that converts pyruvic acid into lactic acid?
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
What is the energy yield of the glycolytic system?
Where does the glycolytic system take place?
When does the glycolytic system begin to be dominant?
At around 10 seconds of intense exercise
Name 4 advantages of the glycolytic system.
- Energy can be provided quickly for activities up to 3 minutes
- Oxygen is not required so there is no delay
- Large amount of stored glycogen can provide more ATP than stores of PC
- Lactic acid can be recycled for further energy production
Name 4 disadvantages of the glycolytic system.
- Lactic acid (Hydrogen Ions) inhibits muscular contraction
- OBLA (causes fatigue)
- By product Lactic Acid reduces pH and prevents enzyme function
- Relatively low ATP yield with long recovery
What is OBLA and when does it usually occur?
Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation: The point at which blood lactate levels significantly increase and fatigue sets in - 4mmol/l
What happens when you reach the lactate threshold?
When lactate production exceeds rate of removal
When sufficient oxygen is available, which energy system is could be dominant if the intensity is not high?
What happens to Pyruvic Acid instead of converting to lactic acid if oxygen is available?
It combines with Coenzyme A to become Acetyl CoA.
How can you remember the path of Pyruvic Acid into the Kreb's Cycle?
PCAOC (Peacock). Pyruvic acid + CoenzymeA = Acetyl CoA. Then, acetyl CoA + Oxaloacetic acid = Citric Acid
What happens to Citric Acid in the aerobic system?
It enters the Kreb's Cycle.
Where does the Kreb's Cycle take place?
Matrix of the Mitochondria.
What are the three phases of the aerobic system?
1. Aerobic Glycolysis
2. Kreb's Cycle
3. Electron Transport Chain
What happens in the Kreb's Cycle?
Citric Acid enters, Co2 is released, Hydrogen atoms are produced, 2ATP is produced, Oxaloacetic Acid is produced.
Where does the Electron Transport Chain take place?
What is the first substance to enter the Electron Transport Chain?
What carries Hydrogen into the Electron Transport Chain?
NADs and FADs
What do NADS and FADS become when they combined with Hydrogen?
NADH and FADH
What happens in the Electron Transport Chain?
Hydrogen in split into Hydrogen ions, which combine with Oxygen to produce H20 and 34 ATP.
What is the energy yield of the aerobic system?
2 ATP from Aerobic Glycolysis
2 ATP from the Kreb's Cycle
34 ATP from the ETC
What other substance does the aerobic energy system use as a source/fuel?
What is the name of the fats that are used in the aerobic system?
Triglycerides (broken down by lipase) into Free Fatty Acids (FFAs)
What is thus process known as?
What is an advantage of using fats as an energy source?
Much larger quantities of ATP are produced
What are the disadvantages of using fats as an energy source?
- Large amounts of oxygen are needed
- It takes a long time
- It can't be relied upon for a sudden burst of high intensity activity
Which energy systems contribute to physical activity?
They ALL contribute to ALL physical activity but one is likely to be dominant.
What 5 factors contribute towards determining the dominant energy system?
- Duration of activity
- Intensity of activity
- Availability of fuel source
- Availability of oxygen
- The fitness level/physiological adaptations of the performer
What is EPOC?
Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption
What are the two components of recovery or EPOC?
Fast-Alactacid Recovery/Slow-Lactactic Recovery
Which type of exercise has a higher oxygen demand and thus greater EPOC?
Anaerobic rather than Aerobic
What are the processes behind alactic debt/recovery?
- Fast recovery and occurs first
- Consumes 1-4L of O2
- Takes 1-3 minutes
- Replenshises blood O2
- Relinks oxygen in the muscle myoglobin
- Replenishes ATP and PC stores
What are the processes behind lactic debt/recovery?
- Slower recovery and occurs second
- Consumes 5-8L of O2
- Takes between 1-24 hours
- Removes lactic acid and replenishes glycogen
- Provides energy for ventilation and circulation
- Regulates temperature
What are the work:rest ratios in the following scenarios?
- Power/Explosive training
- Lactate threshold
- Aerobic work/Continuous training
What is the work:rest ratio for plyometric training?
Identify 7 methods for to enhance recovery
- Warm up
- Active recovery (cool down)
- Cooling aids
- Intensity of training
- Work: rest ratios
What height is considered at altitude?
What is the minimum altitude necessary for optimal acclimatisation?
What happens to the partial pressure of oxygen at altitude?
PPO2 is much lower.
Identify 6 immediate impacts of altitude on the body (acclimatization).
- Within the first few hours of exposure to altitude
- Blood volume decreases (by up to 25%)
- SV decreases (increasing HR)
- Slightly raises Q (cardiac output)
- Rate of O2 diffusion decrease
- Reduces Hb saturation
- Increases breathing frequency
- Maximal Q, SV and HR decreases
What are the three main stages of altitude?
What is the immediate impact of altitude on anaerobic performance eg. sprinting, throwing, jumping?
Either UNAFFECTED or performance IMPROVES depending on the event.
What is the immediate impact of altitude on aerobic performance?
Do athletes have to spend the entire time at altitude?
No they can come down from altitude to sleep below an altitude of 300m.
What immediate impacts does altitude have on lactic acid production?
Increases lactic acid production as a result of reduced oxygen and induces earlier OBLA.
What is the normal human body temperature?
What negative impacts can heat have on the body?
- Fluid loss
- Reduced O2 to working muscles
- Strain on CV system
- Muscle cramps
- Early fatigue
- Increased mucous production
- Airway constriction
- Decreased volume of gas exchange
What is cardiovascular drift caused by?
Dehydration caused by sweating as a result of the body cooling itself (thermoregulation).
This increases blood viscosity (thickness) which causes the heart to work harder to meet oxygen demand.