Anatomy and Embryology of the Eye Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and Embryology of the Eye Deck (42):
1

where do the optic vesicles grow outwards from?

diencephalic part of neural tube towards surface ectoderm

2

what occurs once the optic vesicles reach the surface ectoderm?

cause some of the cells on this surface ectoderm to thicken forming the lens placode

3

what happens after the lens placode is formed?

The lens placode starts to push inwards (invaginate), which causes the optic vesicle too, to form an optic cup

4

how many layers of the optic cup initially form?

2 layered optic cup

5

what is the fissure that allows blood vessels to pass through inferior optic cup wall?

choroid fissure

6

what ultimately happens to the lens vesicle?

looses its connection with the surface ectoderm

7

what does the surface ectoderm form?

eyelids, conjunctiva, corneal epithelium

8

what does the mesenchyme form?

choroid, stroma of cornea, sclera and extraocular muscles

9

what does the outer layer of the optic cup form?

pigment layer of retina and iris

10

what does the inner layer of the optic cup form?

neural layer of retina, ciliary body and inner layer of iris

11

what forms the lens fibres?

epithelium of lens vesicle & later loose their nucleii.

12

how does retinal detachment usually occur?

Tends to happen when fluid gets into potential space between inner 9 layers of retina and 10th outer layer
Can occur following trauma

13

what occurs if the choroid fissure persists?

forms a gap in tissues which develop around it . This gap is called a Coloboma

14

where can coloboma occur?

iris-keyhole pupil
retina
only disc

15

what are strongest parts of the orbit?

orbital rims and lateral and superior walls
(rest easily fractured)

16

what can orbital floor fracture lead to?

herniation into maxillary sinus

17

what are common symptoms of an orbital floor fracture?

Restricted vertical movement of the eye
Subconjunctival hemorrhage
Swollen lid
Loss of sensation over upper cheek area

18

what eye sign can thyroid disease lead to?

Orbital fat hypertrophies leading to the staring appearance

19

describe the epithelium of the cornea

stratified squamous non-keratinised.

20

why is the cornea transparent?

Histologically – regular arrangement of collagen in stroma
No blood vessels
Endothelium cell layer has a pump that actively keeps the aqueous humor out.

21

give an example of an inflammatory/no inflammatory disease of the cornea

Inflammatory – corneal ulcers
Non-inflammatory – dystrophies

22

what do corneal pathologies frequently lead to?

opacification of the cornea. This might need to be treated by corneal transplant - Keratoplasty

23

why is the avascularity of the cornea such a benefit to surgeons?

a lesser chance of foreign antigens from a corneal graft being recognised by the recipient

24

what is the choroid made up of?

fenestrated blood vessels of varying diameter. These supply the outer layers of the retina with blood by diffusion

25

in the retina are the nerve fibres above or below the cones and rods?

(except for fovea)
nerve fibres above (9th layer)
layer of rods and cone below (2nd layer)

26

what is the layer that absorbs all the extra light, underneath the layer of rods and cones?

Pigment epithelial layer

27

how does the fovea centralis differ from the rest of the retina?

packed with cones, so maximum visual acuity

layers have been pushed to side bringing rods & cones up to the surface

28

what is the lens?

Transparent, crystalline biconvex structure which is suspended by zonules from the ciliary body. It can change shape (i.e. become less or more convex.)

29

how is the lens transparent?

it needs to be avascular
(predisposes it to become opaque later in life)

30

what is lens opacification called?

cataract

31

what is the aqueous humor and what is its role?

watery fluid anterior to the lens.It helps maintain intraocular pressure.
constantly circulating fluid that also nourishes the lens and the cornea.

32

what is the vitreous humor and what is its role?

transparent gel posterior to the lens.It helps cushion the retina.

33

where is the aqueous humor produced?

ciliary body, in the space behind the iris and in front of the lens (the posterior chamber - PC)

34

once inside the anterior chamber where does the aqueous humor go?

reaches the angle of the AC where it gets filtered out through a meshwork called the trabecular meshwork

35

at the meshwork where does the aqueous humor go through?

Schlemm’s canal

36

what does an obstruction along the pathway of circulation of aqueous humor lead to?

damming up of AH-increased intraocular pressure- GLAUCOMA

37

where do the lacrimal gland ducts open into?

conjunctival sac
During each blink, eyelids spread tears evenly on the surface of cornea

38

where are the tears drained into?

drains into lacrimal sac
Then drains through nasolacrimal duct into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity.

39

what is the function of tears?

keeps cornea moist , prevents drying
Washes away any particulate foreign bodies
Has antibodies and lysozymes -kills microbes
providing smooth surface of cornea for refraction.

40

what nerve leads to secretion of tears?

Parasympathetic (VII n)

41

what are the three layers of the tear film?

mucinous layer
aqueous layer
oily layer-most superficial

42

what stimulates further blinking?

When eyelids are open, aqueous component of tears evaporates, and when oily layer touches mucin layer, tear film breaks up