Anatomy and physiology ch. 5 The Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy and physiology ch. 5 The Integumentary System Deck (53):
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Components of the skin

the skin consists of the epidermis and the dermis.

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functions of the skin

the functions of the skin are protection, sensation, temperature regulation, excretion, and vitamin D production.

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skin functions: protection

the skin protects against abrasion, uv, microorganisms, and water loss

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functions of the skin: sensation

the skin has receptors that detect temp changes and touch/ pressure/ pain

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Functions of the skin: Vitamin D production

when exposed to uv, the skin makes a molecule that can be turned into vitamin D

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Functions of the skin: temperature regulation

the skin can change the amount of dilation in it's vessels, and it can activate the sweat glands to regulate temperature

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functions of the skin: excretion

small amounts of waste products are lost though the skin and in gland secretions

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epidermis

the most superficial layer of the skin

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dermis

a layer of connective tissue.

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hypodermis

a layer of connective tissue connecting the dermis to the bone

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layers of the epidermis

stratum corneum
stratum luciduum
stratum granulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum basale

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stratum corneum

the highest layer of the epidermis, it has dead squamous cells that are keratinized

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stratum lucidum

only found in thick skin of the palm and sole. this layer is composed of 3-5 layers of dead cells

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stratum granulosum

this is the middle layer of the epidermis. it is 3-5 layers thick. cells pushed from below in this layer start to die.

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statum spinosum

this layer of cells has a spiny appearance. this layer is composed of 8-10 layers of cell. these cell absorb melanin via phagocytosis

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stratum basale

deepest layer of the epidermis. it is made up of a single row of actively dividing cells and is attached to the basement membrane. this layer contains skin stem cells, melanocytes, and keratinocytes.

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dermis

consists of the papillary layer and the reticular layer

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cleavage lines

lines of tension in the skin

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papillary layer

projections that go up into the dermis, also the cause of fingerprints

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reticular layer

makes up 80% of the dermis

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hair bulb

living part of the hair

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hair follicle

projection from the epidermis

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arrector pili

smooth muscle that raises hair in response to cold

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pacinian corpuscle

used for deep pressure touch

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meissner's corpuscle

used for light brisk touch

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merkels disk

Small, superficial nerve endings involved in detecting light touch and superficial pressure.

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sebaceous glands

attached to the hair follicle, they release cebum

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eccrine sweat glands

normal sweat glands

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apocrine sweat glands

produce a thick secretion from hair, found in armpit and genetalia

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hypodermis

attaches the dermis to the bone. also contains about half of the body's stored fat

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melanocyte

cell that produces melanin. found almost equally in all individuals.

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carotene

yellow pigment that changes the skin color. lipid soluble.

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albinism

a disease that causes a deficiency or an absence of melanin

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uv light

made of UVA and UVB, this is converted by the skin to make vitamin D. UVA exposure may result in malignant melanoma, UVB exposure will likely result in basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma.

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redness

a reddening of the skin. may indicate infection, fever, hypertension, allergies

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pallor

where the skin is pale. may indicate anemia or low blood pressure

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jaundice

skin is yellow. may indicate that there is a problem with the liver

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bronzing

is a symptom of Addison's disease (adrenal gland disorder)

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bruising

indicates broken blood vesssels

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nail body

the visible part of the nail

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nail root

the part of the nail covered by skin.

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eponychium

stratum corneum that extends into the nail body

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nail matrix

where the nail root extends from.

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lunula

the whitish crescent-shaped part of the nail located near the cuticle.

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aging of skin

as the body ages, the layer of the epidermis thins, and the amount of collagen in the dermis decreases, and a loss of elastic tissue

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1st degree burns

involve only the epidermis; are red and painful

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2nd degree burns

also known as partial thickness burns, they burn the epidermis and part of the dermis. redness, pain, edema, and blisters may appear

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3rd degree burn

full thickness burn; the epidermis and the dermis are completely destroyed; these are usually painless because the nerves are completely destroyed; usually requires skin grafts, and are prone to infection.

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the rule of nine

head +neck front+back =9%, front and back of arm 9%, anterior superior torso 9%, anterior inferior torso 9%, posterior superior torso 9%, posterior inferior torso 9%, lower extremity front 9%, lower extremity back 9%, genital 1%

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basal cell carcinoma

the most frequent type, starts with cells in the stratum basale, and extends into the dermis.

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squamous cell carcinoma

starts in cells superior to s. basale. the result is a nodular, keratinized tumor that is confined to the epidermis.

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malignant melanoma

rare skin cancer that comes from melanocytes; metastasis is common, and can be often fatal.

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ABCDE's of skin cancer

A-Asymmetrical
B- Borders are irregular
C-Color changes
D-Diameter changes
E-Evolves rapidly