Flashcards in Anatomy and physiology ch. 5 The Integumentary System Deck (53):
Components of the skin
the skin consists of the epidermis and the dermis.
functions of the skin
the functions of the skin are protection, sensation, temperature regulation, excretion, and vitamin D production.
skin functions: protection
the skin protects against abrasion, uv, microorganisms, and water loss
functions of the skin: sensation
the skin has receptors that detect temp changes and touch/ pressure/ pain
Functions of the skin: Vitamin D production
when exposed to uv, the skin makes a molecule that can be turned into vitamin D
Functions of the skin: temperature regulation
the skin can change the amount of dilation in it's vessels, and it can activate the sweat glands to regulate temperature
functions of the skin: excretion
small amounts of waste products are lost though the skin and in gland secretions
the most superficial layer of the skin
a layer of connective tissue.
a layer of connective tissue connecting the dermis to the bone
layers of the epidermis
the highest layer of the epidermis, it has dead squamous cells that are keratinized
only found in thick skin of the palm and sole. this layer is composed of 3-5 layers of dead cells
this is the middle layer of the epidermis. it is 3-5 layers thick. cells pushed from below in this layer start to die.
this layer of cells has a spiny appearance. this layer is composed of 8-10 layers of cell. these cell absorb melanin via phagocytosis
deepest layer of the epidermis. it is made up of a single row of actively dividing cells and is attached to the basement membrane. this layer contains skin stem cells, melanocytes, and keratinocytes.
consists of the papillary layer and the reticular layer
lines of tension in the skin
projections that go up into the dermis, also the cause of fingerprints
makes up 80% of the dermis
living part of the hair
projection from the epidermis
smooth muscle that raises hair in response to cold
used for deep pressure touch
used for light brisk touch
Small, superficial nerve endings involved in detecting light touch and superficial pressure.
attached to the hair follicle, they release cebum
eccrine sweat glands
normal sweat glands
apocrine sweat glands
produce a thick secretion from hair, found in armpit and genetalia
attaches the dermis to the bone. also contains about half of the body's stored fat
cell that produces melanin. found almost equally in all individuals.
yellow pigment that changes the skin color. lipid soluble.
a disease that causes a deficiency or an absence of melanin
made of UVA and UVB, this is converted by the skin to make vitamin D. UVA exposure may result in malignant melanoma, UVB exposure will likely result in basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma.
a reddening of the skin. may indicate infection, fever, hypertension, allergies
where the skin is pale. may indicate anemia or low blood pressure
skin is yellow. may indicate that there is a problem with the liver
is a symptom of Addison's disease (adrenal gland disorder)
indicates broken blood vesssels
the visible part of the nail
the part of the nail covered by skin.
stratum corneum that extends into the nail body
where the nail root extends from.
the whitish crescent-shaped part of the nail located near the cuticle.
aging of skin
as the body ages, the layer of the epidermis thins, and the amount of collagen in the dermis decreases, and a loss of elastic tissue
1st degree burns
involve only the epidermis; are red and painful
2nd degree burns
also known as partial thickness burns, they burn the epidermis and part of the dermis. redness, pain, edema, and blisters may appear
3rd degree burn
full thickness burn; the epidermis and the dermis are completely destroyed; these are usually painless because the nerves are completely destroyed; usually requires skin grafts, and are prone to infection.
the rule of nine
head +neck front+back =9%, front and back of arm 9%, anterior superior torso 9%, anterior inferior torso 9%, posterior superior torso 9%, posterior inferior torso 9%, lower extremity front 9%, lower extremity back 9%, genital 1%
basal cell carcinoma
the most frequent type, starts with cells in the stratum basale, and extends into the dermis.
squamous cell carcinoma
starts in cells superior to s. basale. the result is a nodular, keratinized tumor that is confined to the epidermis.
rare skin cancer that comes from melanocytes; metastasis is common, and can be often fatal.