Chapter 8: Nervous system Flashcards Preview

Anatomy 101 > Chapter 8: Nervous system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 8: Nervous system Deck (63):
0

neuron

receive stimuli, conduct action potentials, and transmit signals to other neurons or effector organs

1

Axon

long cell process that moves the signal away from the cell body

2

myelin sheath

fatty covering that protects and speeds up the signal in the axon

3

nodes of ranvier

gaps in the myelin sheaths where the signal from the axon skips

4

saltatory conduction

when the signal in the axon jumps through the nodes of ranvier, skipping parts of the axon

5

unipolar/pseudo unipolar

has a single process extending from the cell body

6

bipolar neurons

has one dendrite and one axon extending from the cell body

7

multipolar neurons

have many dendriites, and a single axon

8

astrocyte

the major supporting tissue in the CNS; also forms the blood-brain barrier between the blood and the CNS

9

ependymal cells

line the fluid-filled cavities within the CNS. some produce CSF while others move CSF.

10

microglia

act as the immune cells of the CNS. they remove bacteria and debris

11

oligodendrocytes

provide myelin sheaths in the CNS. covers many cells

12

schwann cells

provides myelin sheaths to individual cells in the PNS

13

differences between CNS and PNS

CNS : uses oligodendrocytes, a collection of axons is called a nerve tract, and cells of cell bodies are called nuclei
PNS : uses schwann cells, a collection of axons are called peripheral nerves, and cells of cell bodies are called ganglion

14

neurotransmitters

chemical substances that send messages to other parts of the body

15

aceytlcholine

a neurotransmitter found usually in the neuromuscular junction

16

norepinephrine

excitatory; cocaine and amphetamines increase the release of norepinephrine and blocks the reuptake of them, causing overstimulation

17

serotonin

generally inhibitory, involved with mood, anxiety, and sleep. drugs such as prozac block serotonin transporters, treating anxiety and depression

18

dopamine

excitatory or inhibitory; parkinsons comes as a result of destruction of dopamine secreting neurons

19

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

inhibitory; drugs that increase GABA function have been used to treat epilepsy, which is an excessive release of neurons

20

glycine

inhibitory; can lead to tetanus of repiratory muscles if strychnine is involved

21

endorphins

inhibitory; makes you feel good

22

converging neural pathway

two or more neurons go to one neuron

23

diverging neural pathway

one neuron divides to 2 neurons

24

meningitis

infections of meninges ( wrapping arpund brain and spinal cord)

25

subarachnoid space

under the arachnoid mater and the pia mater that contains CSF and has blood vessels

26

lateral ventricles

found in each cerebral hemisphere containing CSF

27

third ventricle

found in the midline in the center of the diencephalon between the 2 halves of the thalamus

28

fourth ventricle

located at the base of the cerebellum, and contains CSF

29

brainstem

connects the spinal cord to the remainder of the brain. It consists of the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain.

30

medulla oblongata

the most inferior portion of the brainstem; continuous with the spinal cord; contains nuclei that control things like heart rate, blood vessel diameter, breathing, balance. also contains pyramids which have descending nerve tracts to motor neurons

31

pons

superior to the medulla oblongata, also helps control breathing, swallowing, and balance

32

midbrain

superior to the pons, it is the smallest part of the brainstem, contains colliculus, the inferior ones are mainly for auditory nerves, the superior ones control visual reflexes

33

reticular formation

scattered throughout the brainstem, these control functions like respiration, walking, and chewing.

34

frontal lobe

controls voluntary motor functions, aggression, moods, smell

35

parietal lobe

evaluates sensory input such as touch, pain, pressure, temp., taste

36

occipital lobe

used for vision

37

primary somatic sensory cortex

located in the parietal lobe posterior to the central sulcus contains general sensations

38

primary motor cortex

found in the frontal lobe, it controls voluntary motor movement

39

alpha waves

waves that are active when a person is AWAKE

40

Beta waves

waves that are active during intense thinking

41

delta waves

are active in DEEP SLEEP

42

Theta waves

waves found typically in children

43

conus medullaris

the end of the spinal cord. looks like a cone

44

cauda equina

nerves at the end of the spinal cord. looks like a horses tail

45

grey matter

material in the center of the spinal cord that looks like a butterfly

46

anterior horns

contains somatic neurons

47

posterior horns

contain axons which synapse with interneurons

48

lateral horns

contains autonomic neurons

49

spinothalamic tract

transmits action potentials dealing with pain an temperature to the thalamus and on to the cerebral cortex; ascending tract

50

dorsal column

transmits action potentials dealing with touch, positioon, and pressure; ascending tract.

51

I. Olfactory nerve

responsible for the sense of smell. sensory only.

52

II. optic nerve

responsible for the sense of vision. sensory only.

53

III. Oculomotor

motor to four of six extrinsic eye muscles and upper eyelid; parasympathetic: constricts pupil, thickens lens

54

IV. trochlear

motor only to one extrinsic eye muscle

55

V. Trigeminal

sensory to face and teeth; motor to muscles of mastication

56

VI. Abducens

Motor to one extrinsic eye muscle

57

VII. Facial

sensory: taste; motor to muscles of facial expression; parasympathetic to salivary and tear glands

58

VIII. vestibulocochlear

sensory for hearing and balance

59

IX. glossopharyngeal

sensory: taste and touch to back of tonlgue; motor to pharyngeal muscles;parasympathetic to salivary glands

60

X. Vagus

Sensory to pharynx, larynx, and viscera; motor to palate, pharynx, and larynx; parasympathetic to salivary glands

61

XI. accessory

motor to two neck and upper back muscles

62

XII. hypoglossal

Motor to tongue muscles