Anatomy - Bones, Muscles, and Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy - Bones, Muscles, and Joints Deck (105)
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1

Blood supply to the long bone

epiphysial (epiphysis), metaphysial (under growth plate), nutrient supply (passes in nutrient foramen, main blood supply, branches in bone), artery of bone marrow, periosteal (along bone on outside)

2

LOOK AT ALL DIAGRAMS IN NOTES AND NOTEBOOK

3

Most fibrous and cartilaginous joints are rigid and relatively immobile and are described as:

Synarthrosis

4

Bursa

Synovial membrane intercalated between tendon and bone

 

DIAGRAM

5

Muscle structure

Muscle fiber surrounded by endomysium

Fascia (bundle of fibers) surrounded by periomysium

Multiple fascia surrounded by epimysium

6

What are two forms of protection for tendon attached to bone?

Bursa (one area of tendon in danger) and synovial sheet (more of the tendon in need of protection; held there by retinaculum

7

More movable, usually distal attachment

Insertion

8

Sycondrosis

Most of cartilagenous joints

many disappear but joint between hyoid apparatus and skull is the most popular one the has not disappeared

9

Adduction

Movement toward the median plane

10

Perimysium

Surrounds a bundle of muscle fibers

11

Diathrosis

Most synovial joints are highly movable and described as:

12

Ossification centers of bones

Long bone - 1 diaphysial and 2 epiphysial centers

Short bone - one ossification center

Flat and Irregular bones - variable number of ossification centers

13

Connect bone to bone in order to stabilize joints and prevent unwarranted movement

Ligament

14

Epimysium

Surrounds entire muscle

15

Woven bone between the growth plate and diaphysis:

Metaphysis

16

Movement toward the median plane

Adduction

17

Rotation

Movement of a part around it's long axis, direction of rotation is designated by the direction of movement of the cranial or dorsal surface; involves entire long axis of bone

18

Endomysium

Surrounds individual muscle fibers

19

Metaphysis

Woven bone between the growth plate and diaphysis:

20

Fibrous joints

Occurs where bones are united with dense connective tissue

21

Osteochondrisis dessicans

Caused by failure of normal cartilage formation of leaving a flap of cartilage on bone. Most commonly and shoulder, elbow, and stifle joint. It is caused by incomplete calcification.

22

Provide form and support to the body.Protect soft tissues.Act as levers to facilitate locomotion.Have a role in blood cell formation.Maintain mineral homeostasis.

General functions of bones:

23

Occurs where bones are united with dense connective tissue

Fibrous joints

24

For a muscle to affect a joint...

...it must pass over the joint

25

Movement away from the median plane

Abduction

26

Flat, wide, thin sheet of tissue serving as muscle attachment

Aponeurosis

27

Band of dense regular tissue binding down muscle tendons as they pass over bone surfaces

Retinaculum

28

Synarthrosis

Most fibrous and cartilaginous joints are rigid and relatively immobile and are described as:

29

Synovial sheet

Synovial membrane wrapped around a tendon as it passes over bone

 

DIAGRAM

30

Surrounds entire muscle

Epimysium

31

Insertion

More movable, usually distal attachment

32

Towards the leg, retinaculum becomes more like...

...tendons

33

Stabilizes a joint

Fixator

34

Circumduction

Movement of a part in a circular motion as outlining the surface of the cone but not involving entire long axis of bone

35

Agonist

Any muscle that produces a certain effect.

36

Aponeurosis

Flat, wide, thin sheet of tissue (tendon) serving as muscle attachment (runs along side muscle to help attsch to tendon

37

Any muscle that produces a certain effect.

Agonist

38

Fixator

Stabilizes a joint

39

Surrounds individual muscle fibers

Endomysium

40

Sutures

type of fibrous joint

between bones of skull

important in young but gradually ossify in older animals

 

41

Long bones, irregular bones, short bones, pneumatic bones, heterotropic or splanchic bones, flat bones, sesamoid bones

Seven classes of bones:

42

Two divisions of the skeleton:

Axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton

43

Movement of one bone in relation to another such that the angle of the joint is reduced

Flexion

44

The muscle which produces the opposite action to counteract the agonist.

Antagonist

45

What is the structure and parts  of a long bone?

Structure - compact bone, medullary cavity//spongy bone (contains bone marrow), periosteum, endosteum, articular cartilage, and epiphysial cartilage (growth plate or physis)

Parts of long bone - epiphysis (contains physis), metaphysis, and diaphysis (compact bone)

DIAGRAM

46

Retinaculum

Band of dense regular tissue binding down muscle tendons as they pass over bone surfaces

 

DIAGRAM

47

Growth plate is made up of:

Epiphysial cartilage (hyaline cartilage)

48

Synergist

Support agonist action and eliminate unwanted effects.

49

Cartilaginous joints

Occurs where bones are united by cartilage

50

More fixed, least movable, usually proximal attachment

Origin

51

Seven classes of bones:

Long bones - femur

Irregular bones - vertebrae

short bones - digits

pneumatic bones - air filled bones - frontal bones w/ frontal sinus (all bones of chicken

heterotropic or splanchic bones - formed in soft tissue - penis

flat bones - scapula

sesamoid bones - bones w/in tendons; form synovial joints with major bones - patella

52

Antagonist

The muscle which produces the opposite action to counteract the agonist.

53

Fibrous layer of joint capsule may form thickenings that stable the joint and are called:

Collateral ligaments

54

Symphysis

Type of cartilagenous bone

Between 2 symmetrical halves ( ex - pelvis, mandible, etc)

55

Axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton

Two divisions of the skeleton:

56

Muscle characteristics

contractility, excitability, extensibility, and elasticity

57

Collateral ligaments

Fibrous layer of joint capsule may form thickenings that stable the joint and are called:

58

Support agonist action and eliminate unwanted effects.

Synergist

59

Occurs where bones are united by cartilage

Cartilaginous joints

60

Fleshy contractile part of muscle

Muscle belly

61

Structure of synovial joint

Articular cartilage, joint capsule (inner synovial membrane and outer fibrous layer), periosteum, compact bone, synovial cavity (synovia), and synovial fluid

 

DIAGRAM

62

Complex and bones are separated by fluid filled cavity

Synovial joint

63

Synovial joint

Complex and bones are separated by fluid filled cavity

64

Movement of a part in a circular motion as outlining the surface of the cone but not involving entire long axis of bone

Circumduction

65

Attaches bone to muscle

Tendon

66

Types of cartilagenous joints

syncondrosis and symphesis

67

Synovial membrane wrapped around a tendon as it passes over bone

Synovial sheet

68

Syndesmoses

Type of fibrous joint

between 2 bones (ex - radius and ulnea)

forms a ligament

69

Surrounds a bundle of muscle fibers

Perimysium

70

Joint Capsule

Attached to margins of bones forming joint

Inner synovial membrane and sometimes outer fibrous joint (to form thickenings called "collateral ligaments" to stabalize joints

Synovial fluid can be collected for diagnoses

where drugs are injected to treat joints

71

Caused by failure of normal cartilage formation of leaving a flap of cartilage on bone. Most commonly and shoulder, elbow, and stifle joint. It is caused by incomplete calcification.

Osteochondrisis dessicans

72

Most synovial joints are highly movable and descrioibed as:

Diathrosis

73

Tendon

Tough fibrous connective tissue that attaches bone to muscle

Similar to ligament (bone to bone) and fascia (muscle to muscle)

Collagen based

74

Movement of one bone in relation to another such that the angle formed by the joint is increased

Extension

75

Extension

Movement of one bone in relation to another such that the angle formed by the joint is increased

76

Muscle belly

Fleshy contractile part of muscle

77

Abduction

Movement away from the median plane

78

Epiphysial cartilage (hyaline cartilage)

Growth plate is made up of:

79

Bones act as --------- for muscles to create different types of motion

levers

80

Ligament

Connect bone to bone in order to stabilize joints and prevent unwarranted movement

81

Origin

More fixed, least movable, usually proximal attachment

82

General functions of bones:

Provide form and support to the body.Protect soft tissues.Act as levers to facilitate locomotion.Have a role in blood cell formation.Maintain mineral homeostasis.

83

Synovial membrane intercalated between tendon and bone

Bursa

84

Flexion

Movement of one bone in relation to another such that the angle of the joint is reduced

85

Movement of a part around it's long axis, direction of rotation is designated by the direction of movement of the cranial or dorsal surface; involves entire long axis of bone

Rotation

86

3 types of fibrous joints

Sutures and syndesmoses and Gomphosis (tooth)

87

88

Fibrous and cartilagenous joints are ------- and ------- & synovial joints are ---------

rigid and relatively immobile

highly movable

89

2 types of cartilagenous joints

Syncondrosis and symphysis

90

Another name for spongy bone is...

Cancellous bone

91

Accessory ossification centers

Anconal of the ulna

 

Medial coronoid process of the ulna

 

Caudal glenoid region of the scapula

 

Acetabular rim of pelvic limb

92

------------------------ = physis on immature bone

------------------------ = physis on mature bone

Epiphyseal plate

Epiphyseal line

93

What is the part of the bone under the articular cartilage?

Subchondylar Bone

94

The axial skeleton is made up of the...

skull

hyoid apparatus

verterbrae

ribs

sternum

95

Shoulder girdle = ?

 

Pelvic = ?

Scapula and clavicle

 

Ox Coxae

96

First and last sternebrae = ?

Palpable landmarks

97

How many sternebrae are there?

8

98

How would you desctibe the mandible symphysis?

Fibrocartilagenous

99

7 types of synovial joints

Plane - vertebrae

Hinge - elbow

Sadle - digits to phalanges

Elipsoidal - tardals to metatarsals

Spheroidal - ball and socket

Condylar - knee

Pivot - atlantoaxial joint

100

Special vertebrae

C6 - largest trasnverse processes

C7 - no more transverse foramina

T11 - Anticinal vertebrae - spinous process straight up (caudal b4 and cranial after)

101

Differences in diameter of ---------------------- causes wobbler condition in large breed dogs

Vertebral foramen

102

What are the parts of the intervertebral disc

Anulus fibrosus and nucleus pulpossus (inner)

103

Head Joints

 

Temporomandibular Joint - chondylar synovial joint - condylar process (mandible) with mandibular fossa (zygomatic process of temporal bone)

Mandibular Symphysis - fibrocartilagenous - two bodies of mandible

Atlanto-Occipital Joint - chondylar synovial joint - occipital condyles to cranial articular fovea of atlas (no joint)

 

 

104

Vertebral Joints

Atlanto-Occipital Joint - chondylar synovial joint - occipital condyles to cranial articular fovea of atlas (no joint)

Atlanto-Axial Joint - pivot synovial joint - caudal articular fovea of the atlas to the cranial articular surface of the axis (yes joint)

Dorsal Atlanto-Axial Ligament - dorsal, arch of the atlas and spine of the axis

Intervertebral Disk - anulus fibrosus + nucleus pulposus - between the bodies of the vertebrae

Dorsal Longitudinal Ligament - floor of the vertebral canal

Yellow Ligament - above the spinal cord - extend between the vertebral arches to cover the space between the articular processes

Supraspinous Ligament - connects the apices of the spinous processes from C3-T1

Nuchal Ligament - cranial continuation of the supraspinous ligament

Sacrotuberous ligament - sacrum to ishiatic tuberosity (not present in cats)  

105

Joints of ribs to vertebrae

Head of rib to cranial and caudal costal fovea of vertebrae

Tubercle of rib to transverse processes of vertebrae

Intercapital Ligament - connect rib heads from T1-T10 = stabalizes intervertebral disks preventing intervertebral disk herniation