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1

Pancreas

Horse

Pancreas:
Mixed exocrine/endocrine gland that produces digestive enzymes and hormones
The enzymes (used for digestion) are stored and released by cells of the exocrine portion arranged in acini

2

Pancreas Identification

Parenchyma
Stroma
Septa
Zymogen Granules
Mucleus
Basophilic
Acidophilic/Eosinophilic
Vascular Structures

3

Examining Pancreas Slide

1) Low Magnification - Pancreas is separated into lobules separated by septa

2) Find center of lobule and increase magnification

3) High Magnification -
Exocrine pancreatic cells (parenchymal cells) are arranged in clusters called acini with a central lumen into which secretory products are released
Parenchyma are highly polarized with a spherical nucleus (open-faced)
Notice Basophilic (purple - nucleic regions and RER = cell is metabolically active) and Acidophilic/Eosinophilic (pink) regions

4) Lower your condensor = note presence of zygomagen granules within cytoplasm of the pancreatic cells = CELL INCLUSIONS

Ducts and blood vessels also present

4

Lobule of the Pancreas

Parenchyma of pancreas = functional unit of the organ

Made up of pancreatic alcinar cells (arranged into acinii) and pancreatic islet cells (islets of Langerhan; endocrine tissue - secretes product into bloodstream)

5

Septa

Stroma in pancreas

Divides parenchyma

6

Stroma

Nonliving connective tissue that supports organ

Septa (pancreatic version)

7

Acinii

Cellular arrangement of parenchymal cells in a radial formation (lumen in center)

STRUCTURE IN NOTES

8

Purple color of cells = ?

Metabolically activity

Hemotoxylin stain is attracted to basophillic structures = genetic material

9

Zygomagens

CELL INCLUSIONS in Pancreas

Acidophilic = pink

w/ proenzymes needed for digestion

Number of zygomagens is dependent on digestive phase

10

Open- vs closed-face nucleus

Open-Face Nucleus - metabolically active = change of color to purple

Close-Face Nucleus - not metabolically active = no change of colors

11

Dorsal Root Ganglia

Dog

Collection of neuronal cell bodies of the peripheral nervous system

12

Dorsal Root Ganglia Identification

Nucleus
Nucleolus
Nissl Substance, RER
Artifact
Satellite Cells

13

Examining Dorsal Root Ganglia Slide

Low Magnification - Note large ganglionic cells surrounded by smaller, darker satellite cells

High Magnification - Ganglionic cells:
Large open-faced nucleus with a prominent nucleolus (not every cell seems to have a nucleus b/c of where the cell was cross-sectioned)
Basophilic stain of cytoplasm = due to rough endoplasmic reticulum = Nissl substance in neurons
Space around ganglionic cells = artifact fixation due to shrinkage from dehydration

can also notice stroma and neuronal cell membrane

14

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

Cytoplasmic surface possesses receptor molecules for ribosomes and signal recognition particle (ribophorins and docking proteins)

Continuoues with the outer nuclear membrane

15

Satellite Cells in Neurons

Glial cells that cover cell bodies in sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia

16

Liver

Cat

Largest gland in body

Second largest organ

Processes and stores the nutrients absorbed through digestion

Interface between the digestive system and the blood

17

Liver Identification

Hapatocytes (Parenchyma)
Vacuoles
Nucleus
Endothelial Cells
White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)

18

Examination of the Liver Slide

Low Magnification:
Large blood vessels
Septa
Hepatic Cells (Hepatocytes; Parenchyma; lots of activity)

High Magnification:
Sinusoids - spaces containing erythrocytes, leukocytes, and hepatocytes
Hepatocytes with open-faced nuclei and many vacuoles (lipids or glycogen from digestion) in the cytoplasm (pink))
Endothelial Cells
Lipid Droplets (CELL INCLUSIONS)

Also central vein

19

Erythrocytes

Small and ovoid

5-7 micrometers

Viewed in almost all tissues = marker for estimating size of cells

20

Endothelial Cells

Flattened and often elongated

Line all vascular structures

Contain close-faced nuclei (dark = basophilic)

21

Lipid Droplets

CELL INCLUSION in Liver

22

Sympathetic Ganglion

Horse

23

Sympathetic Ganglion Idetification

Nucleus
RER
Nucleoli
Satellite Cells
Lipofuscin (CELL INCLUSION)

24

Examination of Sympathetic Ganglion Slide

Low Magnification:
Ganglionic neuron morphology - neuron cell body (with prominent nucleus and nucleoli and a basophilic cytoplasm) and neuronal fibers

High Magnification:
Surrounding dark satellite cells
Prominent RER (purple, basophilic)
Lipofuscin (CELL INCLUSION) = yellow to brown stain in cell body

25

Lipofuscin

CELL INCLUSION in Sympathetic Ganglion

Yellow to brown pigment in symmpathetic cells

Insoluble pigment that indicate the wear and tear of the cell

digestive remnents of organelles in cell

26

Lots of RER in Sympathetic Ganglion = ?

Nissl Bodies

27

Skin

Horse

Epidermis and Dermis

28

Skin Identification

Epidermis
Dermis
Epithelial Cells
Melanin (CELL INCLUSION)

29

Examination of Skin Slide

Low Magnification:
Dark stained epidermis
Adjacent to lighter stained dermis

High Magnification:
At the basal layer of the epithelium (epidermis) = darkly stained brown pigment = melanin (CELL INCLUSION)

30

Epidermis vs Dermis

Epidermis - epithelium, created from the ectoderm, small extracellular matrix

Dermis - connective tissue, created from the mesoderm, large extracellular matrix

31

Melanin

CELL INCLUSION in Skin

Dark brown pigment in cytoplasm of the epithelium created by melanocytes in response to DNA damage

Protects nuclei from further damage

Melanocytes are derived from neural crest cells (drom ectoderm)

32

Uterus

Lumenal organ of the female reproductive tract

Active estrous cycle (Slide 2)

33

Uterus Identification

Lumen
Uterine Glands
Epithelium
Mitotic Figures
Blood Vessels
Endometrium
Myometrium
Macrophages
Hemosiderin (CELL INCLUSION)

Blood Vessels as well

34

Examination of Uterus Slide - Slide 1

Low Magnification:
Central lumen
Epithelial cells line the lumenal surface that invaginates the endometrium to form uterine glands (cross section)
Notice the difference between the inner endometrial layer (endoderm) and the outer myometrial layer (thick smooth muscle, mesoderm)
Blood vessels

High Magnification:
Examine the uterine glands - different stages of mitotic activity
Mitotic activity = mitotic figures

35

Why is it important to recognize mitotic figures?

Indicative of normal/abnormal growth and tissue repair

If not supposed to be reproducing, could = cancer

36

Uterine Glands

Created by invagination of epithelial cells into underlying endometrium

Active or quiet depending on phase of reproductive cycle (estrus, proestrus, diestrous, metestrous, anestrous)

High estrogen levels = cells proliferate = cells in various stages of mitosis

Low estrogen levels = no activity (mitosis)

Lowering Progesterone levels - vascular tissue regressing leaving some RBCs in the connective tissue proper

37

Examination of Uterus Slide - Slide 2

Low Magnification:
Lumen
Endometrium
Uterine Glands
Outer Myometrium

High Magnification:
Macrophages with yellow/brown pigment (hemosiderin (CELL INCLUSION)

and RBCs

38

Macrophages

Between uterine glands

large WBCs that have engulfed (phagocytized) erythrocytes

Derived from circulating WBCs called monocytes

Connective tissue cell

"big eater"

Hemorrhaging of RBCS around the uterine glands signals the macrophages

Contain Hemosiderin from the breakdown of ingested hemoglobin

Open-faced nucleus (round and indented)

39

Hemosiderin

CELL INCLUSION of Uterus

Indication of the cleaving a the heme molecule from hemoglobin from phagocitzing of RBCs by macrophages

Insoluble yellow/brown pigment

Macrophages DO NOT have to have hemosiderin

Hemosiderin is NOT only found in macrophages (common in macrophages however)

40

Cell Inclusions

Zygomagens - Pancreas
Lipid Droplets - Liver
Lipofuscin - Sympathetic Ganglion
Malanin - Skin
Hemosiderin - Uterus