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Flashcards in Anatomy (first year - ignore) Deck (56):
1

Where would you palpate the apex beat?

5th intercostal space, midclavicular line

2

what are the 3 layers of the pericardium, from outermost to innermost?

fibrous pericardium, parietal serous pericardium, visceral serous pericardium

3

what are the 3 layers of the heart muscle, from outermost to innermost?

epicardium (same as visceral serous pericardium), myocardium (thickest), endocardium (thin)

4

what is the purpose of the myocardium?

responsible for heart contraction

5

which layer of the pericardium provides most protection?

fibrous pericardium, thickest

6

in between which two layers of the pericardium is the pericardial sac?

the parietal serous pericardium and the visceral serous pericardium

7

what is it called when the pericardial sac fills with blood?

haemopericardium

8

what can cause a haemopericardium?

trauma or ruptured cardiac chamber after an MI

9

what procedure is used to treat a haemopericardium?

pericardiocentesis

10

where is the needle inserted in a pericardiocentesis?

infrasternal angle, aimed superiorposteriorly or in the 5th intercoastal space

11

what is a haemopericardium commonly known as?

cardiac tamponade

12

where is the transverse pericardial sinus and in what operation is it useful?

posterior to the pulmonary trunk and the aorta and anterior to the vena cava, used in cardiopulmonary bypass

13

what is the atrioventricular septum split up into?

the interatrial septum and the interventricular septum

14

what can an atrial/ventricular septal defect lead to?

mixing of arterial and venous blood = hypoxaemia

15

what border does the right atrium account for?

right border

16

which chamber accounts for the left border?

left ventricle

17

which chamber of the heart makes up the apex?`

left ventricle

18

another name for the anterior surface is the...

sternocostal border

19

another name for the posterior surface is the...

base

20

another name for the inferior surface is the...

diaphragmatic surface

21

what is the purpose of the fibrous skeleton?

it anchors the heart valves

22

what are fibrous annuli?

rings that surround the heart valves, part of the fibrous skeleton

23

which arteries branch off the ascending aorta?

right and left coronary arteries

24

which arteries branch off the aortic arch?

brachiocephalic trunk, left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery

25

what are the branches of the left coronary artery?

circumflex artery, left anterior descending (LAD) artery, left marginal artery and the lateral branch

26

what are the branches of the right coronary artery?

right marginal artery and the posterior intraventricular artery

27

what are the 4 chambers of the heart (in order of how they carry out the cardiac cycle)?

right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle

28

what are the internal feature of the right atrium?

it has 3 openings (IVC, SVC and coronary sinus), there is a oval fossa in the middle, then smooth tissue, then rough tissue round the outside (muscular bands of the auricle)

29

what is the boundary between the atrium and the auricle called?

the crista terminalis

30

which valves have 3 cusps?

aortic, pulmonary, tricuspid

31

which valves have 2 cusps?

mitral/bicuspid

32

which valves are semilunar?

aortic and pulmonary

33

which valves are leaflet in design?

mitral/bicuspid and tricuspid

34

the closure of which valves accounts for the first heart sound 'lub'?

mitral/bicuspid and tricuspid

35

the closure of which valves accounts for the second heart sound 'dub'?

aortic and pulmonary

36

where would you auscultate for the aortic valve?

2nd right intercostal space next to sternum

37

where would you auscultate for the pulmonary valve?

2nd left intercostal space next to sternum

38

where would you auscultate for the tricuspid valve?

4th left intercostal space next to sternum

39

where would you auscultate for the bicuspid/mitral valve?

5th intercostal space midclavicular line

40

where would you palpate for the apex beat?

5th intercostal space midclavicular line

41

what is the most inferior/lateral part of the heart?

the apex

42

what condition may cause the apex beat to shift more laterally/superiorly?

cardiomegaly (cardiac enlargement)

43

what are auricles?

an extension of the atrium

44

what is the purpose of the azygous vein?

takes blood back from the intercostal spaces to the heart

45

is there a connection between the left and right coronary arteries?

yes

46

what is the coronary sinus?

a short vein (that all the coronary veins drain into) that returns deoxygenated blood from the myocardium to the right atrium

47

where does the coronary sinus sit?

in the atrioventricular groove

48

what is a moderator band?

carries spread of electrical activity to the cusps of the valves

49

what kind of chambers are the atria?

collecting chambers

50

what kind of chambers are the ventricles?

pumping chambers

51

what is the purpose of valves?

to maintain unidirectional flow

52

what is the septomarginal trabecula also known as?

moderator band

53

what is the phrenic nerve made up of?

paired peripheral fibres from the anterior rami of C3, 4 and 5

54

where is the phrenic nerve in relation to the heart?

descends on the lateral border of the pericardium

55

what does diastole consist of (in terms of where in the heart is the blood)?

blood returns to RA via the vena cava and returns to the LA vie the pulmonary veins

56

what are the 2 mechanisms of draining blood from the atria to the ventricles?

drainage (80% of blood) and atrial contraction (remaining 20% of blood)