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Flashcards in Science Deck (63):
1

which coronary artery supplies most of the heart

LAD (left anterior descending)

2

what coronary artery comes form the left stem and goes round the back of the heart

circumflex

3

which coronary artery supplies the left heart border and branches off the left stem

left marginal artery

4

which coronary artery comes from the right coronary and travels between the ventricles on the back of the heart

posterior interventricular artery

5

what is the first branch of the aorta

what does it branch into

brachiocephalic trunk

right subclavian and right common carotid

6

what is the second branch of the aorta

what does it branch into

left common carotid

branches into internal and external carotids

7

what is the third branch of the aorta

left subclavian

8

what arteries come off of the subclavians superiorly

right and left vertebral arteries

9

which sphlanchnic nerves do the sympathetic fibres do the heart travel along

cardiopulmonary sphlanchnic nerves C1-T5

10

what is the last thing to drain into the SVC before it drains into the right atrium

azygous vein

11

what are the 2 things that drain together to form the SVC

right and left brachiocephalic veins

12

what vessels supply the myocardium and epicardium

coronary arteries

13

where does the right recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve hook under

right subclavian artery

14

where does the left recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve hook under

arch of the aorta

15

which node of the heart does the heart beat originate

where is it

SA node

above the right atrium

16

what is afterload

the resistance that the heart needs to pump into

17

what is preload

how much the ventricular walls stretch before contraction

18

is it systole/diastole or diastole/systole

systole/diastole

19

mean arterial pressure calculation

(diastole + diastole + systole) divided by 3

2 diastoles bc its the smaller one

20

short term regulation of BP (1)

baroreceptors

21

long term regulation of BP (3)

ANP
RAAS
ADH

22

sympathetic affect on the heart

positive chronotrope

23

parasympathetic affect on the heart

negative chronotrope

24

which one, HDL or LDL, is the 'bad' cholesterol that increases your CVD risk

LDL

25

first line drug for high LDL cholesterol

statins

26

what does a beta2 agonist (eg adrenaline, dobutamine)
do

vasodilation of coronary arteries and vasoconstriction of other arteries = increased blood to heart

27

side effects on non selective beta1 and beta2 antagonists (3)

what can you use to combat this (for treatment of arrhythmia, angina etc where you want to decrease heart rate)

bronchospasm
cold peripheries
hypoglycaemia

cardioselective beta1 antagonist (eg atenolol)

28

what does a beta1 antagonist (eg atenolol) do

decrease heart rate (bc stimulation of beta1 = increases heart rate)

29

what does a m2 antagonist (eg digoxin, atropine) do

increase heart rate (bc stimulation of m2 = decreases heart rate

30

what does nitric oxide (eg GTN spray) do to the blood vessels

vasodilation

31

which peptide is most significant in vasoconstriction

endothelin 1

32

what do ACE inhibitors do

block conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II = no aldosterone (no RAAS) = salt excretion = decreased bp (also vasodilation to decrease bp)

33

side effect of ACE inhibitors

what do you do if this happens

cough

change to ARB

34

when are ACE inhibitors and ARBs contraindicated (2)

pregnancy
bilateral renal artery stenosis

35

what do CCBs do (eg verapamil, amlodipine)

block Ca channels = decrease muscle contraction = decrease HR and force of contraction

36

what are diuretics used for in CVD

how do they work

hypertension

increase water excretion form kidney = decrease bp

37

what type of drug is warfarin

what does warfarin block

what does this cause

anticoag

blocks production of FII and FX = blocks coagulation cascade

38

what type of drug is heparin

what does heparin block the production of

what is preferred over heparin apart form in renal failure

anticoag

FXa = blocks coagulation cascade

LMWHs

39

what type of drug is aspirin

what does it block

antiplatelet

COX

40

alternative to aspirin in aspirin intolerant patients (GI bleeding and ulceration)

clopidogrel (ticagelor)

41

side effect of digoxin (4)

yellow vision
bradycardia
headache
hyperkalaemia

42

what does digoxin do

what is it used in

blocks AV conduction

AF

43

scoring system for cardiovascular risk factors

ASSIGN

44

which limb is 'earthed' in an ECG

right leg

45

which lead is between left arm and left leg in ECG

lead III

(bc La-LL)

46

which lead is between right arm and left arm in ECG

lead III

(bc ra-La)

47

which lead is between right arm and left leg in ECG

lead II

(bc ra-LL)

48

where does aVF augmented lead come from in ECG

left leg (bc f = foot)

49

where does aVL augmented lead come from in ECG

left arm (bc l = left arm)

50

where does aVR augmented lead come from in ECG

right arm (bc r = right arm)

51

P wave

what is it

how long is normal

atrial depolarisation

<0.12s

52

QRS complex

what is it

how long is normal

atrial repolarisation and ventricular depolarisation

0.04-0.12s

53

T phase

what is it

should it be positive or negative normally

ventricular repolarisation

positive

54

PR interval

what is it

how long is normal

AV node delay

0.12-0.2s

55

'sawtooth baseline' on ECG

atrial flutter

56

irregularly irregular ECG

atrial fibrillation

57

ST elevation in; II, III, aVF

inferior MI

58

ST elevation in; V1-V4

anteroseptal MI

59

ST elevation in; I, aVL, V1-V6

anterolateral MI

60

ST elevation in; I, aVL

high lateral MI

61

ST elevation in; V5-V6

lateral MI

62

ST elevation in; V1-V3

posterior MI

63

if V leads/chest leads are involved in ST elevation, where is the MI (generally)

anterior