Anatomy - Hydrocephalus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy - Hydrocephalus Deck (33)
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1

where is choroid plexus found in the brain

lateral ventricle (majority)

third ventricle

fourth ventricle

2

describe the structure of the BBB

endothelial cells connected with tight junctions

then a basement membrane

then astrocyte foot processes

3

what transporters are in the BBB

transport carriers for glucose and essential amino acids

sodium ion transporters

4

what controls entry of NT in the BBB

metabolic processes within endothelial cells

5

describe the structure of the blood-CSF barrier

fenestrated epithelial (no tight junctions)

then a basement membrane

choroid cells connected by tight junctions

6

impairment of the blood-CSF barrier leads to what

increased protein concentration in the CSF

7

compare CSF and plasma content

CSF: low glucose, low protein

plasma: higher glucose, higher protein, amount the same Na+

8

how does CSF protect the brain from harmful toxins

it has a one-way flow wihch takes harmful metabolites, drugs, and other substances away from the brain

9

how does CSF work with the endocrine system

it serves to transport hormones to other areas of the brain

10

where is the interventricular foramen of monroe

between the lateral and 3rd ventricle

11

how does CSF leave the fourth ventricle

through either 2 of the lateral foramina (Luschka) or the 1 medial foramen (Magendie)

12

describe the pathway of flow of CSF

lateral ventricle --> interventricular foramen --> third ventricle --> cerebral aqueduct --> fourth ventricle --> lateral aperature, median aperature, or central canal --> subarachnoid space --> arachnoid villi of dural venous sinuses --> heart and lungs --> arterial blood --> back to brain

13

if CSF pressure is greater than venous pressure, how does CSF flow

if venous pressure is greater than CSF pressure, how does CSF flow

CSF > venous: flows into venous sagittal sinus

venous > CSF: one way valve; will not flow backwards

 

14

describe communicating/non-obstructive hydrocephalus

- where is the problem normally located

flow of CSF is blocked after it has exited the ventricles

- inhibition of resorption of CSF at the level of the arachnoid villi

15

what does this image show

communicating hydrocephalus

(enlarged lateral ventricle)

16

what is normal pressure hydrocephalus

- what can cause it

a type of chronic communicating hydrocephalus

- increased viscosity of CSF

- altered elasticity of ventricular walls

- impaired absorption due to prior meningitis or subarachnoid hemorrhage

17

normal pressure hydrocephalus normally presents in what types of patients

adults over 60

- dementia

- apraxis gait

- urinary incontinence

18

what is this

hydrocephalus ex-vacuo

19

what is hydrocephalus ex-vacuo and what causes it

a type of communicating hydrocephalus where there is compensatory enlargement of cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid spaces (making up for atrophy)

- brain atrophy

- post-traumatic brain injuries

- schizophrenia

20

compare LP results between normal pressure hydrocephalus and hydrocephalus ex vacuo (two types of communicating hydrocephalus)

normal pressure: intermittent elevated ICP pressure

ex vacuo: no increased ICP

21

what is non-communicating/obstructive hydrocephalus

excess accumulation of CSF due to structural blockage of CSF flow within the ventricular system

22

what dis

aqueductal stenosis

(non-communicating hydrocephalus)

23

signs and sx of aqueductal stenosis

"thunderclap" headache

papilledema

enlarged head (infants)

cognitive/developmental delays

upward gaze palsy

decrease level of consciousness

tremors

24

what is this

Dandy-Walker Malformation

25

what is this

Dandy-Walker Malformation

26

what is Dandy-Walker malformation

obstruction at outlet of 4th venticle + cerebellar hypoplasia

- enlargement at the base of the skull in infants

27

complete or partial agenesis of the cerebellar vermis is associated with what disease process

Dandy-Walker

28

what is this

Chiari type II

29

what is a chiari II malformation

downward displacement of inferior cerebellar vermis, cerebellar tonsils, and medulla through foramen magnum

30

causes of Chiari type II

structural defects in the brain and SC

genetics

lack of vertain vitamins in maternal diet