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Maddy - Neuro II - tracks > Embryo > Flashcards

Flashcards in Embryo Deck (79)
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1

what is the function of the hippocampal commissure

connects the hippocampal formations

2

what is lissencephaly and what causes it

- sx

"smooth brain"

incomplete neuronal migration to cerebral cortex during 3-4 months gestation

- sx: seizures, mental deficiency, mild spastic quadriplegia

3

when do the forebrain and hindbrain divide

(forebrain into telencephalon and diencephalon, and hindbrain into metencephalon and myelencephalon)

5th week

4

what does the basal plate become

motor neurons that leave the CNS and travel to skeletal muscle

- ventral and lateral grey columns/horns

5

function of corpus callosum and how it develops

connects hemispheres along their length

- anterior portion forms first, posterior forms in fetal life

6

causes of hydrocephalus

- increased CSF production by choroid plexus adenoma

- intraventricular hemorrhage causing obstruction of lateral or median aperature

- congenital aqueductal stenosis

7

when do the basal ganglion and cortical structure develop

between weeks 6-32

8

how do the median and lateral apertures form and what is their purpose

the roof of the 4th ventricle evaginates in 3 locations and ruptures

--> allows CSF to enter subarachnoid space from the 4th ventricle

9

what type of neurons are found closest to the midline 

GSE

10

the cavity of the metencephalon becomes what

superior part of 4th ventricle

11

list the 6 structures contained within the telencephalon

cerebral cortex

subcortical white matter

olfactory bulb and tract

basal ganglia

amygdala

hippocampus

12

clinical features of holoprosencephaly

microcephaly

microphthalmia

ocular hypotnesion

cleft lip w/ or w/o cleft palate

intellectual disabilites

epilepsy

hydrocephalus

13

where is the hypothalamus from

neuroblasts in the intermediate zone of the diencephalon

14

what does the embyronic cervical flexure do

demarcates hindbrain from spinal cord

15

what are the tegmental nuclei (red nuclei, reticular nuclei, CN III, and IV nuclei) formed from

neuroblasts from the basal plate

16

what does the mesencephalon give rise to

the midbrain

17

how do the alar and basal plates migrate

alar plates migrate to become lateral to the basal plates so motor nuclei develop medial to sensory nuclei

(affarent will be lateral to efferent)

18

what type of neurons are found closest to the sulcus limitans

GVA and SVA

19

what does the caudal eminence become

sacral and coccyx regions of spinal cord

20

besides the posterior pituitary, what else in the pituitary gland comes from neurohypophyseal diverticulum

median eminence

infundibular stem

21

what does the medulla oblongata consist of

olive 

pyramid

22

where does the posterior pituitary come from

neurohypophyseal diverticulum from diencephalon

23

what does the epithalamus develop from

roof and dorsal portion of lateral wall of diencephalon

24

primordia of the retinae and optic nerves are from what

telencephalon

25

how does the white matter of the cerebral cortex form

axons from neurons in the cortical plate and subplate join those in the intermediate zone, which forms the white matter

26

what is the septum pellucidum and how does it form

a thin plate of brain tissue containing nerve cells and fibers

- runs as a sheet from the corpus callosum down to the fornix separating the anterior horns of the left and right lateral ventricles of the brain

- forms from stretching of the lamina terminalis

27

what part of the neural tube becomes the brain

cranial to the fourth somites

28

what does the rhombencephalon give rise to

(hindbrain)

metencephalon (pons)

myelencephalon (medulla)

29

when do the rostral and caudal neuropores close

rostral: day 25

caudal: day 27/28

30

how are the inferior and superior colliculi formed

neuroblasts of alar plate migrate into the tectum