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Flashcards in Phys - Neurotransmitters Deck (52)
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1

location of cell bodies in the CNS that release NE

locus ceruleus

2

location of cell bodies in the CNS that release epinephrine

brainstem

3

location of cell bodies in the CNS that release serotonin

raphe nuclei

4

location of cell bodies in the CNS that release histamine

tuberomammillary nucleus

5

location of cell bodies in the CNS that release dopamine

VTA (ventral tegmental area)

SNPC (substantia nigra pars compacta)

6

function of NE

movement from awake --> awareness

7

what are the receptors for NE and what G protein pathway do they use

alpha 1: Gq 

alpha 2: Gi

beta: Gs

8

function of dopamine

crucial in creating alertness

voluntary motion

pleasure

9

receptors for dopamine and the G protein pathways they use

D1: Gs

D2 and D3: Gi

10

functions of serotonin

"quiet awareness"

modulation of pain

mood and affect

11

what is the ionotropic receptor for serotonin and what does its activation do

5HT3

--> allows influx of Na+

--> vomiting reflex

12

what are the metabotropic receptors for serotonin

5HT1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7

(5HT3 is ionotropic)

13

location of cell bodies in the CNS that produce ACh

pons and midbrain

striatum of basal ganglia

14

compare ACh functions when it originates in the brainstem (midbrain and pons) and in the striatum of basal ganglia

midbrain and pons: arousal and REM sleep

basal ganglia: motor control (voluntary motion)

15

describe what occurs when the ionotropic (nicotinic) receptors of ACh are activated

mostly Na+ transport with a small amount of Ca2+, but still more Ca2+ than in the periphery

16

what is the major metabotropic receptor for ACh

M1

17

what G protein pathway does M1 receptor for ACh stimulate

Gq

--> increased IP3/DAG --> increased Ca2+

18

what G protein pathway does M4 receptor for ACh stimulate

Gi

--> decreased cAMP

19

what G protein pathway does M5 receptor for ACh stimulate

Gq

--> increased IP3/DAG --> increased Ca2+

20

serotonin is a derivative of what amino acid

tryptophan

21

what are the *critical* roles of GABA

consciousness

motor control

vision (retina)

22

what is GABA made from and what is the rate limiting enzyme in its synthesis

- how is GABA transported into vesicles

- how is GABA removed from synapse

from glutamate

glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)

tranported: vesicular GABA transporter protein (VGAT)

removed: GABA transporter (GAT)

23

where are GAT1 and GAT2 located and what do they do

GAT1: on presynaptic terminal

GAT2: on glial cells surrounding synapse

- both remove GABA from the synapse

24

what happens to GABA if it is taken up by GAT1

it is repackaged into vesicles as is

25

what happens to GABA if it is taken up by GAT2

GABA is converted to glutamine and released to the ECF

--> will then be taken up by presynaptic terminal and recycled into GABA

26

activation of GABA-A receptors causes what

Cl- conductance --> IPSP (in adult neurons)

(ionotropic receptor)

27

activation of GABA-B receptors causes what

activation of K+ (GIRK) channel and inhibition of Ca2+ channel

28

compare function of GABA-B receptors when presynaptic and when postsynaptic

presynaptic: regulates NT release

postsynaptic: inhibition of post-synaptic cell

(metabotropic receptor)

29

location of cell bodies in CNS that release GABA

higher CNS

30

location of cell bodies in CNS that release glycine

major: spinal cord

brainstem (medulla)