Anatomy: Nerves and Muscles Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy: Nerves and Muscles Deck (73):
1

Long thoracic nerve innervates

serratus anterior --> holds scapula to thorax

2

Damage to long thoracic nerve

winged scapula

3

Suprascapular nerve

infraspinatus --> external rotation
supraspinatus --> abducts arm

4

Lateral pectoral nerve

pectoralis major --> flexion, adduction, and medial rotation

5

Upper subscapular nerve

subscapularis --> internal rotation

6

Thoracodorsal nerve

latissimus dorsi --> extension, adduction, transverse extension, flexion from an extended position and internal rotation

7

Lower subscapular nerve

teres major --> medial rotation and adduction

8

Musculocutaneous nerve

biceps, coracobrachialis, and brachialis --> major flexors of arm

9

Axillary nerve

deltoid --> abduction
teres minor --> lateral rotation of the humerus

10

Radial nerve

triceps and extensors --> extend forearm

11

Medial nerve

pronators and thenar muscles --> pronate the arm

12

Ulnar nerve

flexor carpi ulnaris, interosseus, hypothenar --> flex and adduct the hand

13

Major function of muscles innervated by radial nerve

extend forearm, wrist, and fingers

14

Sensation provided by radial nerve

posterior arm, dorsal side of hand

15

Muscles innervated by radial nerve

BEST - brachioradialis, extensors, supinator, triceps brachii

16

Key pathologic finding with radial nerve injury

wrist drop

17

Pathology that occurs with compression of radial nerve against spiral groove of the humerus

Saturday night palsy --> wrist drop, difficulty straightening fingers, numbness on the back of the hand and posterior arm

18

What nerve is damaged with fracture to the shaft of the humerus?

radial nerve

19

What muscles are innervated by the ulnar nerve?

hypothenar muscles --> control hand and 5th digit
3rd and 4th lumbricals --> flex at MCP and extend at IP joints
Interosseous --> abducts and adducts digits
Adductor pollicis --> adducts thumb

20

What areas are provided with sensation by the ulnar nerve?

5th digit and half of 4th digit
medial side of palm and dorsal hand

21

What does damage to the proximal ulnar nerve cause? (i.e. fracture of medial epicondyle)

loss of flexion of the wrist and digits
-looks like pt is make the OK sign with digits 1-3

22

What does damage to the distal ulnar nerve cause? (i.e. fractured hook of hamate)

Ulnar claw - MCP joint hyperextension and IP joint flexion at 4th and 5th digits

23

What deficits can be seen with ulnar nerve injury?

loss of sensation to half of 4th digit and 5th digit, weak abduction and adduction of digits, hypothenar wasting

24

What is the major function of the muscles innervated by the median nerve?

flexion and pronation

25

What muscles are innervated by the median nerve?

pronator teres and pronator quadratus --> pronate hand
flexor carpi radialis and palmaris longus --> flex forearm
flexor digitorum superficialis and lateral half of flexor digitorum profundus --> flex wrist and digits
flexor pollicis longus --> flexes thumb
1st and 2nd lumbricals --> flex MCP joints and extend IP joints

26

What sensation is provided by the median nerve?

lateral palm and first 3 1/2 digits

27

What pathology is seen with median nerve injury at the elbow?

Ape hand - loss of thumb abduction

28

What pathology is seen with median nerve injury above the elbow?

Hand of benediction - loss of flexion of the 2nd and 3rd digits

29

What pathology is seen with entrapment of the median nerve under the flexor retinaculum?

Carpal tunnel syndrome - numbness of the first 3 1/2 digits
-can also be damaged with suicide attempt by slitting wrists

30

What muscles are innervated the musculocutaneous nerve?

coracobrachialis, biceps, and brachialis --> flex and supinate forearm

31

What sensation is provided by the musculocutaneous nerve?

sensation to the lateral side of the forearm

32

What pathology is seen with damage to the musculocutaneous nerve?

decreased flexion and supination of forearm

33

What muscles are innervated by the axillary nerve?

deltoid --> abducts shoulder
long head of triceps --> extends forearm
teres minor --> externally rotates arm

34

What sensation is provided by the axillary nerve?

lateral shoulder

35

What pathology can be seen with injury of the axillary nerve?

loss of abduction + weak flexion, extension and rotation of shoulder
loss of sensation to lateral shoulder

36

What types of injury are associated with damage to the axillary nerve?

dislocation of the shoulder
fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus

37

What artery runs with the axillary nerve and can be damaged with fracture of the surgical neck of the humerus?

posterior circumflex artery

38

What muscle is innervated by the long thoracic nerve?

Serratus anterior --> holds scapula to the thorax

39

What pathology is associated with damage to the long thoracic nerve?

winged scapula
-due to blow to the neck or shoulder or after radical mastectomy

40

What deficit is seen with damage to the upper trunk of the brachial plexus?

Erb palsy (Waiter's tip) - arm hangs by side, is medially rotated, arm extended and pronated

41

What types of injury cause Erb palsy?

infants - lateral traction on neck during delivery, adults - trauma

42

What nerves are damaged with injury to the upper trunk?

suprascapular - infraspinatus, supraspinatus
musculocutaneous - biceps brachii
axillary - deltoid
-roots C5 and C6

43

What deficits are seen with damage to the lower trunk of the brachial plexus?

Klupke's palsy - total claw hand
-lumbricals can't flex MCP joints and can't extend DIP and PIP joints
-lose sensation to inner hand, inner forearm

44

What types of injury cause Klumpke's palsy?

infants - upward force on arm during delivery, adults - grabbing onto a tree branch to break fall

45

What nerves are damaged in Klumpke's palsy?

C8-T1 roots
-primarily damage to ulnar nerve

46

What is thoracic outlet syndrome?

compression of lower trunk and subclavian vessels --> results in same presentation as Klumpke's palsy + ischemia/pain/edema due to vascular compression

47

What types of injury cause thoracic outlet syndrome?

pancoast tumor, cervical rib fracture

48

What motor function does the femoral nerve innervate?

hip flexors - psoas, iliacus, pectineus, sartorius
knee extensors

49

What sensation does the femoral nerve provide?

anterior thigh, medial lower leg

50

What nerve is injured in a pelvic fracture?

femoral nerve

51

What nerve is injured in an anterior hip dislocation?

obturator nerve

52

What motor innervation does the obturator nerve supply?

hip adduction (main function)
knee flexion

53

What sensation does the obturator nerve supply?

medial thigh

54

What motor innervation does the superior gluteal nerve supply?

hip abduction, medial rotation

NO SENSATION

55

What nerve is damaged if a patient is showing Trendelenburg gait?

superior gluteal nerve - tilt pelvis to contralateral side of injury

56

What nerve is commonly damaged in polio?

superior gluteal nerve

57

What nerve is injured with a posterior hip dislocation?

superior gluteal nerve or inferior gluteal nerve

58

What nerve innervates the gluteus maximus to cause hip extension and lateral rotation?

inferior gluteal nerve

59

What nerve is injured in a hip replacement?

inferior gluteal nerve

60

What nerve is injured if a pt can't stand up or walk up stairs?

inferior gluteal nerve

61

What is the motor innervation of the sciatic nerve?

hip extension and knee flexion

62

What sensation is provided by sciatic nerve?

posterior thigh and gluteal regions, entire lower leg except medial aspect

63

What pathologies can lead to damage of the sciatic nerve?

intervertebral disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis

64

What motor innervation is provided by the tibial nerve?

plantar flexion, unlocks knee, toe flexion

65

What sensation is provided by the tibial nerve?

sole of the foot, back of the calf

66

What nerve is damaged with knee injuries?

tibial nerve

67

What nerve is damaged with lateral knee trauma?

deep fibular nerve (deep peroneal nerve)

68

What does damage to the deep fibular nerve cause?

foot drop

69

What motor innervation is provided by the deep fibular nerve?

foot eversion, foot dorsiflexion

70

What sensation is provided by the deep fibular nerve?

webbing of the first and second digits

71

What pathologies are associated with injury to the common fibular nerve?

foot drop, fracture of the neck of fibula, habitual leg crossing, chronic compression

72

What sensation is provided by the common fibular nerve?

lateral lower leg, dorsal side of foot (top of foot)

73

What motor innervation is provided by the common fibular nerve?

peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, short head of the biceps femoris