Endocrine Flashcards Preview

Boards > Endocrine > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (87):
1

Stimulates bone and muscle growth

GH

2

stimulates milk production

Prolactin

3

Stimulates milk secretion

Oxytocin

4

Stimulates metabolic activity

thyroid hormone

5

Increases blood glucose and decreases protein synthesis

Cortisol (glucocorticoids)

6

Preps endometrium for implantation/maintenance of pregnancy

Progesterone

7

Stimulates adrenals to make and secrete cortisol

ACTH

8

Stimulates follicle maturation in females and spermatogenesis in males

FSH

9

Increases plasma calcium, bone resorption

PTH

10

Decreases plasma calcium, increase bone formation

Calcitonin

11

Stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone synthesis in males

LH

12

Stimulates thyroid to produce TH and uptake iodine

TSH

13

Secretes growth hormone

anterior pituitary

14

secretes glucocorticoids

adrenals

15

secretes progesterone

ovaries

16

secretes prolactin

anterior pituitary

17

secretes oxytocin

hypothalamus paraventricular nucleus (stored in posterior pituitary)

18

secretes atrial natriuretic peptide

atria of heart

19

secretes glucagon

pancreas alpha cells

20

secretes testosterone

testes, ovaries

21

secretes FSH

anterior pituitary

22

secretes ADH (vasopressin)

hypothalamus (stored in posterior pituitary)

23

secretes calcitonin

C-cells of parathyroids

24

secretes TSH

anterior pituitary

25

secretes epi and NE

adrenal cortex

26

secretes insulin

beta cells of pancreas

27

secretes estradiol

ovaries

28

secretes estriol

placenta

29

secretes estrone

fat

30

secretes estrogen in males

testes

31

secretes somatostatin

delta cells of pancreas

32

secretes LH

anterior pituitary

33

secretes mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)

adrenals

34

secretes ACTH

anterior pituitary

35

inability to breastfeed, amenorrhea, cold intolerance

Sheehan syndrome - ischemic infarct of pituitary after delivery

36

hormones that share a common alpha subunit

TSH, LH, FSH, hCG

37

infertility, galactorrhea, bitemporal hemianopsia

prolactinoma

38

Mnemonic for remembering the symptoms of the congenital adrenal hyperplasia syndrome

1 first number = hypertension
1 second number = masculinization

39

Phenotypic female unable to mature, hypertension, salt and water retention

17alpha-hydroxylase deficiency

40

Virilization of genetic female, hypotension, salt wasting, high K+, elevated ACTH

in genetic males, it will present with precocious puberty

21alpha-hydroxylase deficiency (most common CAH syndrome)

41

Excessive sodium excretion in urine, early death, unable to produce glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens

3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

42

What drug blocks desmolase ability to form pregnenolone from cholesterol?

ketoconazole

43

Virilization of genetic female, hypertension, salt and water retention

11beta-hydroxylase deficiency

44

Causes of Cushing syndrome

exogenous corticosteroids (most common)
ACTH secreting small cell lung cancer
Cushing disease (pituitary tumor making ACTH)
Adrenal tumor making cortisol

45

Side effects of cortisol use of Cushing syndrome

BAM, CUSHINGOID
Buffalo hump, Amenorrhea/acne, Moon facies, Crazy, Ulcers, Skin changes (striae, bruising, thin skin), HTN, Infections, Necrosis of femoral head, Glaucoma/cataracts, Osteoporosis, Immunosuppression, Diabetes

46

What is the only tumor that will be suppressed by the high-dose dexamethasone test?

ACTH producing pituitary tumor (Cushing disease)

47

Triad of hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia

hyperaldosteronism

48

Most common cause of primary hyperaldosteronism

Adrenal adenoma (Conn syndrome)

49

Medical treatment for hyperaldoesteronism

Spirinolactone, Eplerenone

50

Adrenal insufficiency with skin pigmentation

Addison's disease (AI destruction of adrenals)

51

Hypotension, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia, fatigue, weight loss, anorexia

Primary adrenal insufficiency

52

Tx of primary adrenal insufficiency

glucocorticoids, fludracortisone (mineralocorticoid)

53

Causes of secondary hyperaldosteronism (high renin and aldosterone)

renal artery stenosis, JG cell tumor, CHF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome (detect hypoperfusion/low BP)

54

Pituitary tumors, Pancreatic endocrine tumors (Z-E syndrome, VIPoma, insulinoma), Parathyroid adenomas

MEN 1 (PPP)

55

Mutation in MEN 1

MEN 1 - tumor suppressor

56

Mutation in MEN2A and 2B

RET - receptor tyrosine receptor

57

Parathyroid hyperplasia, medullary thyroid cancer, pheocromocytoma

MEN 2A (PPM)

58

Pheocromocytoma, medullary thyroid cancer, mucosal neruomas

MEN 2B (PMM)

59

Most common tumor of adrenal medulla in kids

Neuroblastoma

60

Features of neuroblastoma

Homer-Wright rossettes
Neurofibrillary stain
N-myc oncogene overexpression
Bombesin tumor marker

61

Symptoms of pheocromocytoma

Paroxysms of palpitations (tachycardia), perspiration, pain (HA), pallor, pressure (HTN)

62

Treatment of pheocromocytoma

Alpha blocker - phenoxybenzamine, pentolamine
can follow with beta blocker
surgical resection

beta blocker alone will cause hypertensive crisis due to vasoconstriction of alpha agonism

63

Diagnosis of pheocromocytoma

VMA in urine, metanephrine and normetanephrine in plasma

64

Remnant of the thyroglossal duct

foramen cecum

65

Enlarged, non-tender thyroid with lymphoid aggregates on bx, Hurthle cells, associated with autoantibodies and hypothyroidism

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

66

Fixed, rock hard painless goiter, hypothyroidism, fibrous tissue with eosinophils and macs on bx, may extend into local structures

Riedel thyroiditis

67

Hypothyroidism with very tender thyroid + granulomatous inflammation following URI

Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis

68

Effects of congenital hypothyroidism (cretinism)

intellectual disability, impaired growth, protuberant abdomen, protuberant tongue

69

Hyperthyroidism, pretibial myxedema, proptosis and exopthalmos, goiter, increased uptake of radioactive iodine, thyroid stimulating Abs

Grave's disease

70

Thyrotoxicosis in a pt who is repleted with iodine after being deficient

Jod-Basedow phenomenon

71

Complications of thyroidectomy

hoarseness - damage to recurrent laryngeal nerve
hypocalcemia - removal of parathyroid glands

72

Empty-appearing nuclei with central clearing, nuclei can look like ground glass, psammoma bodies, nuclear grooves, most common thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

73

Papillary carcinoma gene mutations

RET and BRAF - both receptor tyrosine kinases

74

Follicular carcinoma gene mutation

RAS

75

Unique spread via hematogenous spread, uniform cuboidal cells, invasion thru thyroid capsule

Follicular carcinoma

76

Originates from parafollicular C cells, associated with high calcitonin, polygonal stroma, amyloid stoma, MEN 2A and 2B

Medullary carcinoma
-screen all pts for pheocromocytoma due to MEN association

77

Older pt with rock hard thyroid, poor prognosis

Anaplastic carcinoma

78

What is lymphoma in the thyroid associated with?

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

79

Location of GLUT-1 transporters

RBCs, brain, cornea, placenta (insulin independent)

80

Location of GLUT-4 transporters

skeletal muscle, adipose tissue (insulin dependent)

81

Location of GLUT-2 transporters

Beta cells of pancreas, kidneys, liver, small intestine (insulin independent)

82

What type of receptor is insulin?

tyrosine kinase

83

Mechanism of insulin release from beta cells

glucose metabolized --> increase ATP --> close K+ channels --> hyperpolarize cell --> open VG Ca2+ channels --> Ca2+ influx --> insulin released from vesicles

84

What complications of diabetes are associated with nonenzymatic glycosylation?

small vessel dz - retinopathy, nephropathy
large vessel dz - atherosclerosis, CAD, peripheral vascular dz, gangrene (limb loss)

85

What complications of diabetes are associated with osmotic damage?

neuropathy, cataracts

86

How are tissues damaged in diabetes due to osmotic damage?

Schwann cells, retina, kidneys, lens lack sorbitol dehydrogenase, so they can't convert sorbitol to fructose

-do have aldose reductase to form sorbitol from glucose

87

What are two life threatening complications of DKA?

arrhythmias - due to hyperkalemia
Mucormycosis caused by rhizopus infection - lethal brain fungus infection