Anatomy of Chest Wall and Mechanics of Breathing Flashcards Preview

Respiratory system 2017 > Anatomy of Chest Wall and Mechanics of Breathing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of Chest Wall and Mechanics of Breathing Deck (25):
1

What is Boyle's law?

States that the pressure exerted by a gas is inversely proportional to its volume

2

What is Dalton's law?

States that the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of all the pressures of each individual gases

3

What is Charles law?

States that the volume occupied by a gas is directly related to the absolute temperature

4

What is Henry's law?

States that the amount of gas dissolved in a liquid is determined by the pressure of the gas and its solubility in the liquid

5

What is pleurisy?

Inflammation of the pleura, characterised by pain while breathing as the pleural membranes grate over each other

6

What causes pneumothorax?

introduction of air into the pleural cavity, causing the uncoupling of the lungs to the chest wall. This leads to an increase in intrapleural pressure

7

What is the pressure of the pleural cavity normally when compared to atmospheric pressure?

-3mmHg

8

What muscles are used during inspiration?

Diaphragm
External intercostals

9

What muscles are used in active expiration?

Internal intercostals
Abdominal muscles
Accessory muscles in severe respiratory distress?

10

What are the accessory muscles of respiration?

The accessory inspiratory muscles are the sternocleidomastoid, the scalenus anterior, medius and posterior, the pectoralis major and minor, the inferior fibres of serratus anterior and latissimus dorsi, the serratus posterior anterior may help in INSPIRATION

11

What movement of the ribcage increases the anterior-posterior dimensions of the ribcage, dependent on the intercostal muscles?

Pump handle movement
Pulls ribcage forward

12

What movements of the ribcage influences the lateral dimensions of the ribcage, dependent on the intercostal muscles?

Bucket handle movement
Increases lung volume at the sides

13

Define asthma

Over reactive constriction of the bronchial smooth muscle, increasing resistance of airflow, and makes expiration difficult

14

Does asthma make inspiration or expiration difficult?

Expiration, which is why wheeze is normally most noticeable on expiration in asthma

15

Describe intrathoracic (alveolar) pressure

Pa

Pressure inside thoracic cavity, can be positive or negative

16

Describe intrapleural cavity

Pip

Pressure inside pleural cavity, always negative

17

Describe transpulmonary pressure

Pt

Difference between Pa and Pip (Pa-Pip)
Always positive in health, as Pip is always more negative than Pa.

18

How much pleural fluid is normally found in the pleural cavity?

3ml

19

What is the function of pleural fluid?

Lubricates membranes to allow them to glide over each other without causing pain
Prevents separation of membranes

20

What are the symptoms of pneumothorax?

Sudden onset sharp pain
Usually one sided pain
Dyspnoea

21

What movement are the internal intercostal muscles responsible for during expiration?

Move ribs and sternum down and inwards

22

What are the abdominal muscles responsible for in expiration?

Reducing volume of the abdominal cavity (oppose diaphragm effects)

23

What are the external intercostal muscles responsible for in inspiration?

Move sternum and ribs forwards and up, as well as outwards

24

What is the diaphragm responsible for in inspiration?

Increasing lung volume

25

What is the diaphragm?

Sheet of internal skeletal muscle, importune in respiration