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Flashcards in Anatomy of Foregut Derivatives Deck (121)
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What is the esophagus

muscular tube inferior to thoracic diaphragm

1

What does the esophagus do

conveys food from pharynx to stomach via peristalsis

2

What covers the esophagus

superior to thoracic diaphragm: adventitia (esophageal plexus)
inferior to thoracic diaphragm: retroperitoneal

3

What are the 3 areas of constriction exhibited by fluoroscopy following a barium swallow

cervical-upper esophageal sphincter
thoracic-aortic arch and left main bronchus
diaphragmatic-lower esophageal sphincter

4

What issues may arise from the esophageal constrictions

-foreign bodies tend to lodge here
-swallowed corrosives do greatest damage here
-carcinomas most frequently occur here
-damage resulting from edoscopic instruments most likely occur here

5

What is the esophageal hiatus

point of passage through right crus of thoracic diaphragm

6

What vertebral level is the esophageal hiatus at

T10

7

What are the phrenicoesophageal ligaments

attach to thoracic diaphragm at hiatus
-permit independent movement during respiration and swallowing
-create seal between thoracic and abdominal cavities

8

Where is the esophagogastric junction and what are its borders

located left of midline at T11(level with xiphoid)
-right border: continuous with lesser curvature of stomach
-left border: separated from fundus by cardiac notch

9

What does the cardiac sphincter do

helps prevent gastric reflux

10

What are the arteries of the esophagus

esophageal aa
esophageal branch
left inferior phrenic a

11

Where do the esophageal aa come from

descending thoracic aorta (above diaphragm)

12

Where does the esophageal branch come from

left gastric artery

13

Where does the left inferior phrenic a. come from

abdominal aorta

14

What are the veins of the esophagus

esophageal vv
left gastric v

15

Where do the esophageal vv drain to

superiorly to azygos

16

Where does the left gastric v drain to

inferiorly to hepatic portal v

17

What are the primary lymphatics of the esophagus

left gastric nodes

18

What are the secondary lymphatics of the esophagus

celiac nodes

19

Where do the lymphatics of the esophagus drain to

thoracic duct

20

What innervates the esophagus

parasympathetic and sympathetic blend in esophageal plexus

21

What is the parasympathetic innervation of the esophagus

via vagal trunks
-presynaptic neurons synapse in myenteric and submucosal plexuses

22

What is the sympathetic innervation of the esophagus

presynaptic neurons synapse in celiac ganglion
postsynaptic neurons follow periarterial plexus

23

What is esophageal varices

enlarged submucosal vv associated with portal hypertension
-submucosal vv dilate as portal venous return is redirected through azygos system
-rupture is postentially fatal

24

What is hematemesis

vomiting blood due to rupture of esophageal varices

25

What is esophageal varices associated with

cirrhosis of the liver

26

What is pyrosis

-Burning, substernal pain originating from lower esophagus
-associated with acid reflux through the cardiac sphincter
-may be misinterpreted as cardiac pain

27

What is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

-Burning, substernal pain, difficulty swallowing, dry cough, hoarseness, lump in throat
-chronic digestive disease

28

How is GERD diagnosed

if patient has two or more episodes of heartburn or acid reflux per week

29

What does GERD do

acid changes cells in lower part of esophagus
-damage causes:
--narrowing of esophagus from scar tissue resulting in difficulty swallowing
--esophageal ulcers which bleed and cause pai