Flashcards in Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System Deck (46):
when does the heart begin to beat?
when does blood start to flow?
how many different blood supplies are there in an embryo?
3 - to carry nutrients and gases within the body and to carry things between the embryo, yolk sac and placenta
what carries blood from the heart to the body?
what carries blood from the body to the heart?
what carried blood between arteries and veins?
what carries excess fluid that does not re-enter capillaries?
lymphatic system (important part of immune system)
do arteries carry blood away from or towards the heart?
are the arteries under low or high pressure?
what are the walls of arteries like?
thick and elastic
what type of blood do arteries carry?
usually oxygenated blood (except pulmonary artery)
do veins carry blood away from or towards the heart?
towards (apart from the portal vein which carries blood from the gut to the liver)
what type of blood do veins carry?
usually deoxygenated blood (except pulmonary vein)
what are the walls of veins like?
thin and less elastic than arteries
what pressure are veins under?
veins contains valves to aid venous return against gravity. true or false?
other than valves, what else helps the return of blood against gravity?
contraction of leg muscles
what colour are arteries in a cadava?
what colour are veins in a cadava?
when do varicose veins occur?
when valves fail (venus return is poor leading to the pooling of blood in superficial veins)
how does vein thrombosis (blood clot) occur?
when blood pools in veins due to inactivity. if small part of the clot (embolus) breaks off, it may pass to the lungs and block a pulmonary artery.
what does the lymphatic system do?
it returns tissue fluid to the blood and helps with immune response and it removes foreign material
what causes elephantiasis?
blockage of the lymphatic system in the leg by a parasitic worm
what is the principle artery?
what types of artery are there?
renals (gut), iliacs (legs and pelvis), carotids (head) and subclavians (arm)
what are the two major veins?
superior/inferior vena cava
what does the superior vena cava drain?
the head, arms and chest
what does the inferior vena cava drain?
the lower part of the body
what types of vein are there?
renal (kidney), iliacs (legs and pelvis), jugulars (head), subclavians (arms), portal vein (gut to liver)
which veins drain into the unpaired inferior vena cava?
renals and iliacs
which veins drain into the unpaired superior vena cava?
jugulars and subclavians
one what side is most of the hearts mass?
what prevents back flow of blood into the atrium?
the contraction of papillary muscles which tense the chordae tendinae to prevent inversion of the bicuspid and tricuspid valves
on what side is the tricuspid valve?
the right side
on what side is the bicuspid valve?
the left side
what are the chordae tendinae?
the heart strings/operate valves of the heart
what are the coronary arteries?
arteries that branch from the beginning of the aorta to supply the heart muscles
what causes coronary thrombosis (heart attack)?
the left and right coronary arteries connect which each other but the connections cannot open quickly. blockage of the coronary arteries leads to death of heart muscle in that region (myocardial infarct)
cardiac muscle has its own intrinsic rhythm. true or false?
what coordinates the contraction of heart muscle?
a pacemaker system which sends a wave of simulation across the heart
what can change heart rate?
autonomic nerves to the pacemaker
what increases heart rate?
sympathetic nervous system
what decreases heart rate?
parasympathetic nervous system
what is the pacemaker?
where is the SAN found?
in the wall of R atrium