Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

ANAT1003 test 2 > Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System Deck (46):
1

when does the heart begin to beat?

22-23 days

2

when does blood start to flow?

4th week

3

how many different blood supplies are there in an embryo?

3 - to carry nutrients and gases within the body and to carry things between the embryo, yolk sac and placenta

4

what carries blood from the heart to the body?

arteries

5

what carries blood from the body to the heart?

veins

6

what carried blood between arteries and veins?

capillary networks

7

what carries excess fluid that does not re-enter capillaries?

lymphatic system (important part of immune system)

8

do arteries carry blood away from or towards the heart?

away from

9

are the arteries under low or high pressure?

high pressure

10

what are the walls of arteries like?

thick and elastic

11

what type of blood do arteries carry?

usually oxygenated blood (except pulmonary artery)

12

do veins carry blood away from or towards the heart?

towards (apart from the portal vein which carries blood from the gut to the liver)

13

what type of blood do veins carry?

usually deoxygenated blood (except pulmonary vein)

14

what are the walls of veins like?

thin and less elastic than arteries

15

what pressure are veins under?

low pressure

16

veins contains valves to aid venous return against gravity. true or false?

true

17

other than valves, what else helps the return of blood against gravity?

contraction of leg muscles

18

what colour are arteries in a cadava?

pink

19

what colour are veins in a cadava?

blueish

20

when do varicose veins occur?

when valves fail (venus return is poor leading to the pooling of blood in superficial veins)

21

how does vein thrombosis (blood clot) occur?

when blood pools in veins due to inactivity. if small part of the clot (embolus) breaks off, it may pass to the lungs and block a pulmonary artery.

22

what does the lymphatic system do?

it returns tissue fluid to the blood and helps with immune response and it removes foreign material

23

what causes elephantiasis?

blockage of the lymphatic system in the leg by a parasitic worm

24

what is the principle artery?

the aorta

25

what types of artery are there?

renals (gut), iliacs (legs and pelvis), carotids (head) and subclavians (arm)

26

what are the two major veins?

superior/inferior vena cava

27

what does the superior vena cava drain?

the head, arms and chest

28

what does the inferior vena cava drain?

the lower part of the body

29

what types of vein are there?

renal (kidney), iliacs (legs and pelvis), jugulars (head), subclavians (arms), portal vein (gut to liver)

30

which veins drain into the unpaired inferior vena cava?

renals and iliacs

31

which veins drain into the unpaired superior vena cava?

jugulars and subclavians

32

one what side is most of the hearts mass?

the left

33

what prevents back flow of blood into the atrium?

the contraction of papillary muscles which tense the chordae tendinae to prevent inversion of the bicuspid and tricuspid valves

34

on what side is the tricuspid valve?

the right side

35

on what side is the bicuspid valve?

the left side

36

what are the chordae tendinae?

the heart strings/operate valves of the heart

37

what are the coronary arteries?

arteries that branch from the beginning of the aorta to supply the heart muscles

38

what causes coronary thrombosis (heart attack)?

the left and right coronary arteries connect which each other but the connections cannot open quickly. blockage of the coronary arteries leads to death of heart muscle in that region (myocardial infarct)

39

cardiac muscle has its own intrinsic rhythm. true or false?

true

40

what coordinates the contraction of heart muscle?

a pacemaker system which sends a wave of simulation across the heart

41

what can change heart rate?

autonomic nerves to the pacemaker

42

what increases heart rate?

sympathetic nervous system

43

what decreases heart rate?

parasympathetic nervous system

44

what is the pacemaker?

sinoatrial node

45

where is the SAN found?

in the wall of R atrium

46

what does the pacemaker do?

sends wave of excitation across atria. wave spreads to AV node which send signals down septum to bundle of His. causes ventricular contractions.