Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

ANAT1003 test 2 > Respiratory System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Respiratory System Deck (38):
1

what is a respiratory surface?

one across which o2 and co2 are exchanged

2

where does the swim (gas) bladder of fish lie?

above the gut (it develops as outgrowth of gut)

3

from which part of the gut do the lungs develop?

the foregut

4

which part of the germ layer does the lung lining come from?

gut endoderm

5

which part of the germ layer do the surrounding tissues come from?

mesoderm

6

how many pairs of ribs are there?

12

7

how are the ribs attached to the sternum?

costal cartilages

8

what type of cavities is the thorax divided into?

pleural cavities

9

what separates the pleural cavities?

a central wall of tissue (mediastinum)

10

what is each lung wrapped in?

pleura

11

which layer is the visceral pleura?

inner layer

12

what does the visceral pleura lie against?

the lung

13

which layer is the parietal pleura?

outer layer

14

what does the parietal pleura attach to?

the inside of the rib cage

15

what does the pleural cavity contain?

lubricating fluid

16

the pressure in the pleural cavity is positive. true or false?

false- it is negative

17

what is another name for the root of the lungs?

the hilum

18

the visceral and parietal pleura are continuous with one another at the hilum. true or false?

true

19

how many lobes does the right lung have?

3 lobes

20

what are the lobes of the right lung?

upper, middle and lower

21

how many lobes does the left lung have?

2 lobes

22

what are the lobes of the left lung?

upper and lower

23

why is the left lung smaller than the right?

it fits against the cardiac notch

24

what happens at the root of the lung?

structures enter or leave the lung

25

what structures enter/leave the lung at the hilum?

one main bronchus, autonomic nerves, 1 pulmonary artery, 2 pulmonary veins.

26

what supplies the alveoli with blood?

pulmonary artieries

27

what is emphysema?

the thinning of the alveoli, loss of elastic tissue and collapse of small bronchioles and alveoli, therefore decrease in lung capacity

28

where does gas exchange occur in an embryo?

placenta

29

what is surfactant?

a chemical (lipid protein) that is secreted into the lungs and stops the alveoli collapsing

30

when does most of lung maturation take place?

in the last few weeks of pregnancy

31

describe the process of breathing in

volume of lungs increases, pressure decreases. therefore atmospheric pressure forces air into lungs. lungs expand until pressure is equal inside and out.

32

describe the process of breathing out

volume of lungs decrease, pressure increase. therefore air forced out

33

in what directions can the thoracic cavity expand?

bilaterally, superiorly/inferiorly, anteroposteriorly

34

describe the movement of the respiratory system during inhalation.

first rib fixed by neck muscles (scalenes). EXTERNAL intercostal muscles pull ribs UPWARDS towards first rib. this action also moves ribs OUT and sternum FORWARDS. diaphragm CONTRACTS and FLATTENS.

35

describe the movement of the respiratory system during exhalation.

lower rib fixed by abdominal muscles. INTERNAL intercostal muscles pull ribs DOWN. diaphragm RELAXES and returns to domed resting position.

36

what is the diaphragm made of?

skeletal muscle and tendon

37

what supplies the diaphragm?

left and right phrenic nerves

38

how do the phrenic nerves lie in the body?

start in neck, travel through thorax to diaphragm