Anatomy & Physiology - II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anatomy & Physiology - II Deck (79)
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1

How is diffusion time related to distance?

diffusion time is proportional to the square of the distance

2

Why is diffusion only efficient over small distances?

it requires more energy (?)....
it is a fairly slow process (?)

3

How do small/thin aminals exchange materials with the surrounding medium?

directly (open circulatory system)

4

How do most animals exchange materials with the environment?

cells exchange materials with the environment via a fluid-filled circulatory system

5

What are the 3 components of a general circulatory system?

- a circulatory fluid
- a set of interconnecting vessels
- a muscular pump (the heart)

6

What does a circulatory system allow organs to do?

exchange gases, absorb nutrients, dispose of wastes

7

What are the two types of circulatory systems?

open and closed

8

Why is gas exchange important?

need oxygen to produce energy to live

9

What is the importance of excreting wastes?

eliminate toxic substances that could interfere with biochemical processes or cause tissue/molecular damage

10

What types of organisms typically have an open circulatory system?

insects, other arthropods, and most molluscs

11

What does hemolymph mean?

blood (synonym)

12

In what type of circulatory system does hemolymph bathe the organs directly?

open

13

What types of organisms typically have a closed circulatory system?

annelids, cephalopods, vertebrates

14

How does a closed circulatory system work?

blood is confined to vessels - more efficient transport to tissues and cells

15

How does blood flow in blood vessels?

one way

16

What do arteries branch into?

arterioles

17

Where do arterioles carrry blood to?

capillaries

18

What are the sites of chemical exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid?

capillary beds (networks of capillaries)

19

What converges into veins?

venules

20

What is the function of veins?

return blood from capillaries to the heart

21

How are arteries and veins distinguished?

direction of blood flow

22

Are arteries and veins distinguished by oxygen content?

no

23

What direction does the blood flow in veins? in arteries?

- veins: to the heart
- arteries: away from the heart

24

How many chambers are in the hearts of humans?

4

25

What organisms have 2 chambers in the heart?

fish

26

How many chambers are in amphibian hearts?

3

27

Through what structure does blood enter the heart?

an atrium

28

Through what structure is blood pumped out of the heart?

ventricle

29

What occurs in single circulation?

blood leaving the heart passes through two capillary beds before returning

30

What organisms perform single circulation?

bony fishes, rays, sharks