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Flashcards in Anatomy Practical 3 Deck (40):
1

What are the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall?

Quadratus Lumborum
Transversus abdominis
Psoas major

2

What is the posterior abdominal wall formed by?

- psoas major
- quadratus lumborum
- iliacus
- transversus abdominis
- diaphragm
- 5 lumbar vertebrae

3

Where is psoas major?

Arises from lumbar vertebral bodies and IV discs -> passes under inguinal ligament -> inserts on lesser trochanter of femur

4

Where is quadratus lumborum?

originates on transverse process of lumbar vertebrae and last rib -> inserts on iliac crest of pelvis

5

What roots makes up the lumbar plexus? Where do these nerves arise from?

L1-L4
From anterior primary rami

6

What nerves make up the lumbar plexus and what are their roots?

- ilioinguinal (L1)
- iliohypogastric (L1)
- lateral femoral cutaneous (L2-L3)
- genitofemoral nerve (L1-L2)
- obturator nerve (L2-L4)
- lumbosacral trunk (L4-L5)
- femoral (L2-L4)
- subcostal (T12)

7

What do the nerves in the lumbar plexus innervate?

Subcostal - motor to abdominal muscles, sensory to lower anterior abdominal wall
Ilioinguinal - motor to abdominal muscles, sensory to groin
Iliohypogastric - motor to abdominal muscles, sensory to upper and medial thigh, root of penis, mons pubis and labia majora
Genitofemoral - cremaster motor, sensory genital branch genitals, femoral branch upper anterior thigh
Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh - lateral thigh
Obturator - motor to medial compartment of thigh, sensory to medial thigh
Femoral - motor to anterior compartment of thigh, sensory to anterior thigh

8

Where does the abdominal aorta bifurcate and into what?

L4/5 into common iliac arteries

9

What are the anterior branches of the abdominal aorta?

- coeliac trunk
- SMA
- IMA

10

What are the lateral branches of the abdominal aorta?

- renal arteries (L1) and suprarenal/adrenal arteries
- gonadal arteries (L2)
- four paired lumbar arteries

11

Where does the IVC form and by what?

Common iliac veins joining at L5

12

What are the tributaries of the IVC? Where do they enter?

Renal veins
Suprarenal/adrenal veins
Gonadal veins
Enter laterally

13

What is the difference in drainage of the gonadal veins?

Left gonadal vein drains to left renal vein but right drains straight to IVC

14

Which vein crosses the midline anterior the aorta?

Left renal vein

15

What does the urinary system consist of?

Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, adrenal glands

16

Where do the renal arteries arise?

From abdominal aorta at L1

17

What is the blood supply to the adrenal glands?

- superior suprarenal

18

What is the lymphatic drainage of the adrenal glands?

Same as kidneys: para-aortic lymph nodes

19

What do the adrenal glands receive blood from?

3 sources:
- branch from renal artery
- branch from abdominal aorta
- branch from inferior phrenic

20

What structures are between the renal columns?

Columns of Bertin
between the pyramids

21

What is the tip of the medullary pyramid in the kidneys called?

Renal papilla

22

What is at the top of each pyramid?

Calyx

23

What is the position/course of the ureters in males?

Leave hilum
pass downwards behind peritoneum
lie on psoas major
pass medially across common iliac bifurcation and enter pelvis
pass laterally and turn medially to enter bladder
pierce detrusor muscle obliquely and open at ureteric orifices

24

What is the PUJ?

Pelvic-ureteric junction

25

What is the CUJ/VUJ?

Cystoureteric junction
Vesicoureteric junction

26

Where are the 3 narrowing's of the ureters where calculi may get obstructed?

- PUJ
- CUJ/VUJ
- when ureters enter pelvic brim (cross external iliac artery)

27

Where is the bladder?

- anterior part of pelvic cavity
- behind pubic symphysis
- anterior to rectum
- inferior to prostate

28

What is the retro-pubic space?

Fat filled recess between anterior wall of bladder and pubic symphysis

29

What is the rectovesical pouch?

Superior surface of bladder reflected up on to rectum anterior wall

30

Where is the EUS in males?

Surrounds membranous urethra, then through corpus spongiosum towards penis tip

31

What is the navicular fossa?

Vertical slit of urethra - external urethral meatus

32

Which part of the prostate usually enlarges the most?

Middle lobule
Obstructs IUS

33

Where are the ureters in females?

Close proximity to the ovarian vessels
Medial to ischial spine
Close to lateral fornix of vagina
Enters bladder superiorly/posteriorly

34

What is close near the pelvic brim?

Uterine arteries and ovarian vessels

35

Why is the ureter in danger of damage during a hysterectomy?

Ureter passes immediately inferior to uterine artery near fornix of agina
Uterine artery ligated and severed to remove uterus

36

Where is the bladder in females?

Between pubic symphysis and uterus

37

What is the vesicouterine pouch?

Peritoneum forms it
Between bladder and utertus

38

What is the rectoutertine pouch?

Pouch of Douglas
Peritoneum forms it
Between uterus and rectum

39

What is the blood supply to the bladder?

From superior and inferior vesicle arteries
Branches of internal iliac
Female bladder receives branches from uterine and vaginal arteries

40

Where is the urethra in the female?

Traverses the urinogenital diaphragm (pelvic floor) before opening in vulva
Surrounded by striated EUS muscle