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Flashcards in Corticosteroids Deck (18):
1

What are corticosteroids?

Steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex

2

What are corticosteroids used for?

Treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases

3

What are the 2 classes of corticosteroids?

Mineralocorticoids
Glucocorticoids

4

Where are corticosteroids made specifically and what are they used for?

- mineralocorticoids -> zona glomerulosa of the kidney (outer layer), for electrolyte and water balance

- glucocorticoids -> zone fasciculata (middle), affecting metabolism, fights infection, prevents fluid loss, neurochemistry effects

5

What type of corticosteroid is cortisol?

Glucocorticoid

6

How does the concentration of cortisol change at different times?

- cicadian rhythm:
highest in the morning when we wake up and then decreases throughout the day until the evening where it is at its lowest

7

What is the purpose of the cicadian rhythms?

Allows you to be more active during the day, better response to stress and greater immune protection in the morning when you need it vs the evening when you are mostly in a protected environment
Natural homeostatic mechanism

8

What are the side effects of high glucocorticoids?

Oedema, weight gain, hypertension, osteoporosis, avascular necrosis, hyperglycemia, glaucoma, jaundice, peptic ulcers, cushing's if there is high cortisol

9

Why may you have high glucocorticoid levels?

From stress
excess administration

10

What is the use of glucocorticoids?

Hypersensitivity (asthma, dermatitis)
Arthritis
MS
Adrenal deficiencies
Chron's

11

What are the glucocorticoid receptors?

- 2 forms: alpha and beta
- lipids so can enter the cell membrane meaning they are found in the nucleus and the cytoplasm

12

What is the role of the beta glucocorticoid receptor?

Does not bind to the steroid
Increased in steroid resistant patients

13

How do glucocorticoids work on receptors?

Through genomic activities (slow acting) and non-genomic activities (fast acting)

14

How do genomic activities occur?

Transactivation and transrepression

15

What is transactivation?

Glucocorticoids bind to alpha receptors, the receptor gets translocated to nucleus where it regulates gene expression

16

What is transrepression?

Glucocorticoid bind to the DNA directly where pro-inflammatory transcription factors prevent gene expression

17

How do non-genomic activities work?

Activated glucocorticoid binds to proteins on the membrane and cytoplasm causing an immediate effect through activating cascades

18

What are the synthetic forms of glucocorticoids?

Dexamethasone
Betamethasone
Prednisone
Prednisolone