Flashcards in Corticosteroids Deck (18):
What are corticosteroids?
Steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex
What are corticosteroids used for?
Treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases
What are the 2 classes of corticosteroids?
Where are corticosteroids made specifically and what are they used for?
- mineralocorticoids -> zona glomerulosa of the kidney (outer layer), for electrolyte and water balance
- glucocorticoids -> zone fasciculata (middle), affecting metabolism, fights infection, prevents fluid loss, neurochemistry effects
What type of corticosteroid is cortisol?
How does the concentration of cortisol change at different times?
- cicadian rhythm:
highest in the morning when we wake up and then decreases throughout the day until the evening where it is at its lowest
What is the purpose of the cicadian rhythms?
Allows you to be more active during the day, better response to stress and greater immune protection in the morning when you need it vs the evening when you are mostly in a protected environment
Natural homeostatic mechanism
What are the side effects of high glucocorticoids?
Oedema, weight gain, hypertension, osteoporosis, avascular necrosis, hyperglycemia, glaucoma, jaundice, peptic ulcers, cushing's if there is high cortisol
Why may you have high glucocorticoid levels?
What is the use of glucocorticoids?
Hypersensitivity (asthma, dermatitis)
What are the glucocorticoid receptors?
- 2 forms: alpha and beta
- lipids so can enter the cell membrane meaning they are found in the nucleus and the cytoplasm
What is the role of the beta glucocorticoid receptor?
Does not bind to the steroid
Increased in steroid resistant patients
How do glucocorticoids work on receptors?
Through genomic activities (slow acting) and non-genomic activities (fast acting)
How do genomic activities occur?
Transactivation and transrepression
What is transactivation?
Glucocorticoids bind to alpha receptors, the receptor gets translocated to nucleus where it regulates gene expression
What is transrepression?
Glucocorticoid bind to the DNA directly where pro-inflammatory transcription factors prevent gene expression
How do non-genomic activities work?
Activated glucocorticoid binds to proteins on the membrane and cytoplasm causing an immediate effect through activating cascades