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Flashcards in Anatomy Practical 2 Deck (37):

Where is the position of the pituitary gland?

Attached to undersurface of brain by infundibulum (pituitary stalk), in the sella turcica/pituitary fossa


Where is the sphenoid bone?

Middle cranial fossa


What are some features of the sphenoid bone?

Greater and lesser wings
Central sella turcica - lateral margins are anterior and posterior clinoids


What are the clinoid processes?

attachment sites for the dura


What is posterior to the sella turcica?

Clivus - slopes down to the foramen magnum where spinal cord exits skull


What is the thyroid gland covered by?

Infra-hyoid strap muscles


What is the function of infra-hyoid strap muscles?

Important in movements of the larynx and tongue


What is the SCM?

Sternocleidomastoid - most superficial and lateral of the infra-hyoid strap muscles
2 distal attachments to the manubrium and clavicle
Proximal attachment to mastoid process and skull base
Causes rotation of head and flexion if both SCM contract together


What is medial to the SCM?

Superior belly of the omohyoid


What are the properties of the omohyoid?

2 bellies connected by intermediate tendon that passes through a sling
L shaped muscle
inferior belly attaches to suprascapular notch


Where is the sternohyoid?

Medial to the omohyoid
Passes from sternum to hyoid


What is deep to the sternohyoid?



Where is the thyroid gland positioned?

On the trachea
between the oblique line of the thyroid cartilage and 4th/5th tracheal ring


What does the thyroid gland consist of?

Left and right lobes
Pyramidal lobe


What is the artery supply and venous drainage of the thyroid gland?

arteries -> superior and inferior thyroid arteries (branch of thyrocervical trunk of subclavian)
Venous drainage -> via superior, middle and inferior thyroid veins


What are the properties of the right and left adrenal glands?

Right - triangular, on superior pole of right kidney
Left - crescentric, on superior-medial border of left kidney between superior pole and hilum


What are some properties of the pancreas?

A gland
Exocrine and endocrine functions
Uncinate process, head, neck, body and tail


Where is the pancreas?

Head of pancreas is in C-shape of duodenum
Pancreas crosses midline with tail extending to splenic hilum on left
Lies across the posterior part of the abdomen from loop of duodenum to the spleen
Head surrounds SMA and vein with uncinate process wrapping around them posteriorly


What is the blood supply of the pancreas?

Mostly from Splenic artery (via coeliac trunk)
Head of pancreas - SMA - inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery/ coeliac -> gastroduodenal -> superior pancreaticoduodenal artery


Where does the pancreatic lymph drain?

To coeliac and superior mesenteric pre-aortic lymph nodes


What happens at the major duodenal papilla?

Pancreatic duct opens into second part of the duodenum in conjunction with the common bile duct


What is the accessory pancreatic duct?

Opens into the duodenum slightly superiorly at minor duodenal papilla


What are the properties of the liver?

Largest organ of the body
Right upper quadrant of abdominal cavity
Below right dome of diaphragm
Anterior/superior surface and inferior/visceral surface
Divided into left, right, quadrate and caudate lobes


What is the anterior/superior surface of the liver?

Mostly covered with peritoneum
Double layer falciform ligament attaches to anterior surface to anterior abdominal wall
Thickened free lower border of ligament formed ligamentum teres


What is the inferior/visceral surface of the liver?

Gall bladder is visible as well as structures entering and leaving the liver at the porta hepatis


What does the porta hepatis contain?

Hepatic artery, common hepatic duct, hepatic portal vein
Enclosed in the fold of lesser omentum


Where does the IVC travel in relation to the liver?

#Through posterior liver taking branches of hepatic veins


What are the lobes of the liver?

L and R
quadrate anteriorly - adjacent to gall bladder
caudate posteriorly - adjacent to IVC


What does the gallbladder consist of?

Fundus, body, neck


What is the surface anatomy of the gallbladder?

Fundus lies at L1 vertebral level - level of 9th costal cartilage on the right


What is the pathway of bile?

Produced in the liver travels down the L and R hepatic ducts forming common hepatic duct. This is joined by cystic duct from gallbladder forming common bile duct. Common bile duct joins the pancreatic duct at ampulla of Vater. This drains to 2nd part of duodenum at major duodenal papilla.


What is another name for the ampulla of Vater?

hepatopancreatic ampulla


What is endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography?

Standard procedure for diagnosis of both pancreatic and biliary disease
Fibreoptic endoscope passed through mouth, oesophagus and stomach into duodenum
Cannula inserted into major duodenal papilla for injection of radiograph contrast medium


What are gall stones?

Produce symptoms when obtain a size sufficient enough to produce mechanical injury or obstruct biliary tract


Where is the common site for impaction of gall stones?

Distal end of hepatopancreatic ampulla is narrowest part of biliary tract


How does cholecystitis occur?

If gall stone blocks the cystic duct
Pain develops in epigastric region and shift to right hypochondriac region
Severe biliary colic = gall bladder removal


What is TIPS?

transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt
stent between IVC and portal vein in porta hepatis