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Flashcards in Ancient Rome Deck (40):
1

3 Historical periods in Rome

1. Monarchy
2. Republic
3. Empire

2

3 Roman values/ideals

1. Pietas, sense of duty
2. need to seize the day
3. contempt for luxury (praise for thriftiness)
also:
agricultural ideal
praise of toil (labor)

3

2 stages of Roman marriage

1. People shout bad things to advert the evil eye
2. Lock right hands
also:
girls gave up toys to gods to show they were women
girls put on a flammeum, which is a yellow/orangish veil

4

Penalty for wife committing adultery

wife was exiled

5

Penalty for husband for not divorcing a wife who had committed adultery

lose legal/citizen rights

6

Patria Potestas (fathers powers)

1. religious power
2. property power
3. power over life and death

7

Latium

Geographical area of Rome

8

Rome was founded in...

753 BC (by Romulus and Remus)

9

Exemplums

Taught Romans morals, stories about bravery, honesty, courage etc.

10

Lucius Quincitius Cincinnatus

Agricultural ideal exemplum, high political leader (dictator) who choose to go back to being farmer after a successful campaign

11

Ideals of marriage

1. Univira (one man one women) women should be faithful, no cheat. Not supposed to remarry after husband dies.
2. Concordia (harmony) working together, they are a team.

12

Pietas

sense of duty to:
one's parents (exemplum Aeneas)
one's fatherland
one's god
one's friend/client

13

Childbirth

Childbirth killed more women than men in war
1/4 children died in the first 12 months
mothers did not breast feed
fed wine to newborns

14

The right of 3 children

an attempt to increase birthrate, if you have 3 living children, than you get legal benefits

15

Reasons for infant exposure

1. Physical defects
2. Illegitimacy (suspected cheating)
3. bad omens
4. Gender

16

Bulla

The amulet boys wore to advert from the evil eye

17

Roman Religion

Lacks dogma - you didn't HAVE to believe in certain things
Lacks religous text
No ethical guidance

18

Syncretism

Roman religion was always adding new gods
constantly evolving

19

Domestic Gods

1. Lares - protective spirits of the household
2. Penate - Protective spirits of the cupboard
3. Lararium - Shrine to the Lares

20

The Olympians

Greek gods (which are similar to roman gods)
Zeus - Jupitar
Ares - Mars
Hera - Juno
Aphrodite - Venus

21

Prayer

Not private
very ritualized
legalism - striking "contracts" with the gods

22

Stages of Roman sacrifice

1. Procession of victims to the altar (pigs, sheep, goats)
2. Prayer, offering of wine
3. pour of wine, and salting the animals head
4. killing the animal (by slaves)
5. Examination of the bodies
6. Burning of the animals body on the altar

23

Sibylline Oracles

Collection of books that had answers to people questions

24

Augury

observation of the flight or behavior of birds in order to predict the future

25

Extispicy

Liver of sacrificed animal was examined. If the liver had blemishes, it was traced to gods who were unhappy. Used a stone that was a liver map

26

Ambarvalia

Festival to purify the land
end of may
pig-sheep-bull procession

27

Saturnalia

Festival in honor of Saturn
December 17, but celebrated throughout the month
Rowdy
gift giving
free people wear the pileus (coned shaped hat)

28

Lupercalia

Festival of fertility
February 15
naked men run around striking women with strips of goat skin
rowdy atmosphere

29

Pontifex

Official priest of the state religion
16 of them
elected position

30

Vestal Virigins

Priestesses of the temple of Vesta
6 of them
Responsible of keeping the flame of vesta burning
had to remain a virgin for 30 years, if broken you were buried alive

31

Aeneid Characters

Dido - Aeneas love affair
Mercury - god who tell Aeneas to go to Italy, for pietas
Ascanius - Aeneas son
Anchises - Aeneas father
Turnus - Engaged to Lavinia (who Aeneas is also engaged to)
Lavinia - daughter of Latinus and Amata
Pallas - son of Evander who is killed by Turnus
Evander - tells story of Hercules and Caucus

32

12 Tables

Romes first written law code

33

Imatatio

It's good to adapt from other works of art, just make it your own. Virgil adapts Homer's epics in the Aeneid

34

Patricians

Original appointed by Romulus himself
there were less than 100
we known by their name
patricians became extremely rare

35

Tribune of the Plebs

An elected role
first there were 2, later there were 10
had to be a plebeian
were sacrosanct (couldn't touch their bodies, capital offense)

36

Equestrians (Equites)

Business class
Social prestige
legal advantages

37

Criminal punishment for free citizens

1. exile (not that bad)
2. fines
3. work on public projects (slave work)

38

Criminal punish for slaves and noncitizens

1. Crucifixtion
2. 'to the beast' - had to fights animals
3. work in the mines
4. fines
5. the sack - if you killed your father, you were sewn into a bag with a monkey, rooster, a dog, and a snake and were thrown into water.

39

Patron-Client relationship

Patrons:
represents clients interests
offers legal assistance
gifts/dinner

Clients:
vote/support patron
offer services
increased patrons visibility
owned faith and loyalty

40

Comitia Centuriata

Patricians and plebian
Elected consuls