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Flashcards in FInal Exam Deck (95):
1

Processual Archaeology

Focusing on whole societies, ("the forest")

2

Types of Identity

Age
Sex
Race
Class
Religion
Ethnicity
Profession

3

Case Study: Moundbuilders

In the south of American, Thomas Jefferson tried to learn out the origins of them.

4

Case Study: African burial ground new york

Archaeology brings out racial tensions
– Most archaeologists are white and study people of color
– We must be careful to be respectful to those we study.

5

How can we see children in the archaeological record?

Toys
Small clothing
Things children would make

6

Sex vs Gender

Sex - Is biologically based (male or female or intersex)
Gender - Is culturally based (man and women can me different things)

7

Performativity

Judith Butler, created the idea that identity, especially gender, is not static but is constantly changes as we live and take actions, "perform".

8

3 phases of feminism in archeaology

1. Addressing overt sexism (androsexism, people only focused on the men in the past, which does not tell the full story). Conkey and Spector - wrote about androsexim and how the men where only studied when females where important too. "Man the Hunter" model
2. Understanding the roles of males and females in society. (moving on from critiquing, actually researching the women of the past)
3. Looking beyond men and females to see new genders and uncover new forms of identity. (Looking at gender and sexuality and they way they affect everyday lives. Not just women specifically).

9

Case Study: What This Awl Means

Janet Spector - A book trying to understand the experience of one native american girl. "peopling" the past. SEE 3 PHASES OF FEMINISM CARD.

10

Intersectionality

We can only understand gender identity by looking at it's interactions with other forms of identity. No identities exist alone. Race, age, religion etc.

11

Lamarckian Evolution

Animals could pass on traits to their offspring. (wrong)

12

Positivism vs Relativism

Positivism:
The world is empirically knowable.
Modernism - progress is always good, move foreword

Relativism:
Our understanding of the world is culturally constructed
Post-Modernism - Take a step back and understand consequences

13

Mickey Mouse laws

Generalized laws on the human race

14

Marxist archeaology

Focused on economy.

15

Gender archeaology

Focused on correcting androcentric focus (male bias). Female ideals

16

Post-Structuralism/agency

People have free will, but social structures (re)create realities.

17

Ian Hodder

Artifacts as symbols/texts that are "read" subjectively.
Diverse interpretations of work in Catalhoyuk in Turkey. (one of the most important Neolithic sites). It's across the sea from Egypt on a map.

18

Aggrandizer/feasting model

People would try to show wealth by showing off extravagant displays of food. Increases their status.

19

Emic

insider perspectives

20

Evolutionary archeaology

Applies theories of evolution (darwin)

21

Cultural transmission

Learned information that is passed on. Increased technology...

22

Cultural variability

Invention (like mutation)
Revival (like mutation)
Drift (like genetic drift)
Diffusion (like gene flow)

23

Cultural selection

ideas spread or decline... skinny jeans popular or unpopular? DVD or Blu ray?

24

Contemporary Theory

people are more complex than just environment, subsistence and population.
How cultures are formed and evolve.

25

Household

Resource access, kin organization, gender

26

Burial

location, symbolism

27

Hopewell

early woodland mounds, ritual economy

28

Earthlodge at Okmulgee

Macon, GA. Bird throne in a mound that shows status.

29

Egyptian Burial

Pharaoh is the incarnation of Horus, the sky/falcon god, related to Ra the god of the sun.

30

Evolution of Egyptian tomb

Tomb, Mastaba, Step Pyramid, True Pyramid.

31

Tutankhamen

Wealth pharaoh, but minor. Tombs of greater pharaoh haven't looted or not yet discovered.

32

Canopic Jars

Used to store internal organs by the ancient egyptians

33

Monumental labor projects could be:

1. Cultural selection - to build cohesion for when it matters (food, defense). (walls)
2. Political/economic - to flaunt wealth or power (large castles)
3. Religion or ideology - because people believed in them (temples)

34

Pictographic language

(sementic) only written symbols

35

Logosyllabic

Sementic AND phonetic (written symbols with sounds)

36

Alphabetic

Phonetic is more focused on (sounds rather than written text)

37

Did Mesopotamian pictograms influence china and Meso-American writing?

No it did NOT

38

Egyptian writing

was political

39

Narmer Palette

Egyptian tablet that depicts king Narmer smiting enemies.

40

Rosetta Stone

A tablet that is split into three sections of writing. The top is Ancient Egyptian, the middle is Demotic, and the bottom is Ancient Greek.

41

Shang Dynasty

1800BC-1200BC

42

Oracle Bones

Written text on bones, or turtles shells from the Shang Dynasty. Origins of writing in a ritual context. (submit questions to the gods on the bones)

43

What drove writing for each area in the world?

Mesopatamia - Economic (trade)
Egypt - Political (kings and conquest)
China - Religious (ritual divination)
Mesoamerican - political (kings and conquest)

44

Landa's alphabet

Mayan (mesoamerican) writing that had phonetic (sounds) elements in writing.

45

Altar Q

Show political history of Mayan on a stone block rooted in the ground.

46

Quipu

recording devices of language in mesoamerica, based on numbers. like a measuring tape

47

Hawkes Ladder of Inference

a pyramid that stacked the easier and hardest things to learn about an ancient civilization.
his list was this:
Religion (hardest)
Social/political
Subsistence/economics
Techniques/technology (easiest)

48

What is religion?

Beliefs and actions related to supernatural forces.

Ideology - intersection of religion and politics
Cosmology - world and it's creation

49

3 types of religion

1. Monotheism - believe in 1 god
2. Polytheism - believe in many gods
3. Pantheism - the universe is the god

50

Shaman vs Priest

Shaman - Transformation, healing, smaller societies
Priest - large scale societies

51

Most primitive form of religion

Mana - a spiritual force/energy
next was animism - belief in nature spirits and ancestral spirits

52

Blombos Cave

South Africa- symbolic ochre

53

Archeoastronomy

aka. Cultural astronomy - cross cultural perceptions of time, calendar cycles, and cosmos.

54

New Fire Ceremony

Aztec Rite of Passage - every 52 years, break pots and re-light the city. Renewal

55

Past affects the present

Israel or Palestine?

56

Cultural heritage

USA - Less than 1 out of ten people consider themselves to have indigenous blood.
Mexico - More than 9/10 people consider themselves to have indigenous blood.

57

Threats to archaeological record

Looting
Mining

58

Patrimony debate

who owns the past?
What is legal vs what is ethical

59

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Museums need official documentation showing earlier acquisition.

60

NAGPRA

Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. Protection of native american graves on federal property. gave native americans a voice.

61

CELF Project

Center for the Lives of Everday Familes. Most people spent the majority of their time in their kitchen.

62

Binford's cross cultural study

Residences of nomandic people tend to be more CIRCULAR than those of sedentary people.

63

Zapotec state at Monte Alban formed at

200BC

64

Craft specialization that is sponsored by elite patron or a political-religious institution

Attached specialization

65

Order of social evolution

Band - tribe - chiefdom - state

66

Phytolith

The silica structure of plant cells

67

Map: Potlatch

Washington/canada coast

68

Map: Oldowan

South east africa

69

Charles Darwin

Outlined the mechanics by which evolution works, natural selection

70

Flinders Petrie

Pioneer in archaeological seriation

71

William Smith

Understood English stratigraphy by noting chalk layers

72

Boucher de Perthes

Argued for the great antiquity of humans by noting stone tools in association with extinct animal species

73

CJ Thomas 3 age system

Stone age
Bronze age
Iron age

74

Ecofact vs artifact

Ecofact - seeds, nuts, pollen
Artifact - blade or man made

75

Remote sensing methods

Lidar
Electrical resistivity
Ground-penetrating radar

76

Puritan grave stones lab

Skull and wings patterns

77

Relative Dating

Dating methods that include seriation

78

Radiocarbon dating

Dating method that could date bones

79

Theory of Superposition

Older strata is lower in the ground

80

Potassium argon dating

Used to date earths earliest rocks

81

Uniformitarianism

Charles Lyell

82

Inspiration or Atlantis Myth

Minoan Civilization
Defeat if Athens in Peloponnesian war

83

Not type of analysis you could do using GIS

Radiometric resistivity analysis

84

Horizontal excavation

If you want understand how features and structures are associated spatially

85

The Piltdown fossil

Exposed at a fraud using fluorine bone dating

86

Remote sensing

Non destructive

87

Ozette

Pacific Northwest village with great wet preservation

88

Rank size analysis

Indication if how integrated sites in a region are

89

Diffusion

Spread of cultural traits such as ideas and technology

90

Magnetometry

Passive remote sensing method

91

Harris Matrix

How strata in a site are associated with one another

92

Order if field archaeology

Survey - remote sensing - excavation

93

Most precise dating method

Dendrochronology

94

Otzi

Neolithic "iceman", in mountains above italy

95

Map: Petrie's predynastic pots

North Africa - Egypt