Flashcards in FInal Exam Deck (95):
Focusing on whole societies, ("the forest")
Types of Identity
Case Study: Moundbuilders
In the south of American, Thomas Jefferson tried to learn out the origins of them.
Case Study: African burial ground new york
Archaeology brings out racial tensions
– Most archaeologists are white and study people of color
– We must be careful to be respectful to those we study.
How can we see children in the archaeological record?
Things children would make
Sex vs Gender
Sex - Is biologically based (male or female or intersex)
Gender - Is culturally based (man and women can me different things)
Judith Butler, created the idea that identity, especially gender, is not static but is constantly changes as we live and take actions, "perform".
3 phases of feminism in archeaology
1. Addressing overt sexism (androsexism, people only focused on the men in the past, which does not tell the full story). Conkey and Spector - wrote about androsexim and how the men where only studied when females where important too. "Man the Hunter" model
2. Understanding the roles of males and females in society. (moving on from critiquing, actually researching the women of the past)
3. Looking beyond men and females to see new genders and uncover new forms of identity. (Looking at gender and sexuality and they way they affect everyday lives. Not just women specifically).
Case Study: What This Awl Means
Janet Spector - A book trying to understand the experience of one native american girl. "peopling" the past. SEE 3 PHASES OF FEMINISM CARD.
We can only understand gender identity by looking at it's interactions with other forms of identity. No identities exist alone. Race, age, religion etc.
Animals could pass on traits to their offspring. (wrong)
Positivism vs Relativism
The world is empirically knowable.
Modernism - progress is always good, move foreword
Our understanding of the world is culturally constructed
Post-Modernism - Take a step back and understand consequences
Mickey Mouse laws
Generalized laws on the human race
Focused on economy.
Focused on correcting androcentric focus (male bias). Female ideals
People have free will, but social structures (re)create realities.
Artifacts as symbols/texts that are "read" subjectively.
Diverse interpretations of work in Catalhoyuk in Turkey. (one of the most important Neolithic sites). It's across the sea from Egypt on a map.
People would try to show wealth by showing off extravagant displays of food. Increases their status.
Applies theories of evolution (darwin)
Learned information that is passed on. Increased technology...
Invention (like mutation)
Revival (like mutation)
Drift (like genetic drift)
Diffusion (like gene flow)
ideas spread or decline... skinny jeans popular or unpopular? DVD or Blu ray?
people are more complex than just environment, subsistence and population.
How cultures are formed and evolve.
Resource access, kin organization, gender
early woodland mounds, ritual economy
Earthlodge at Okmulgee
Macon, GA. Bird throne in a mound that shows status.
Pharaoh is the incarnation of Horus, the sky/falcon god, related to Ra the god of the sun.
Evolution of Egyptian tomb
Tomb, Mastaba, Step Pyramid, True Pyramid.
Wealth pharaoh, but minor. Tombs of greater pharaoh haven't looted or not yet discovered.
Used to store internal organs by the ancient egyptians
Monumental labor projects could be:
1. Cultural selection - to build cohesion for when it matters (food, defense). (walls)
2. Political/economic - to flaunt wealth or power (large castles)
3. Religion or ideology - because people believed in them (temples)
(sementic) only written symbols
Sementic AND phonetic (written symbols with sounds)
Phonetic is more focused on (sounds rather than written text)
Did Mesopotamian pictograms influence china and Meso-American writing?
No it did NOT
Egyptian tablet that depicts king Narmer smiting enemies.
A tablet that is split into three sections of writing. The top is Ancient Egyptian, the middle is Demotic, and the bottom is Ancient Greek.
Written text on bones, or turtles shells from the Shang Dynasty. Origins of writing in a ritual context. (submit questions to the gods on the bones)
What drove writing for each area in the world?
Mesopatamia - Economic (trade)
Egypt - Political (kings and conquest)
China - Religious (ritual divination)
Mesoamerican - political (kings and conquest)
Mayan (mesoamerican) writing that had phonetic (sounds) elements in writing.
Show political history of Mayan on a stone block rooted in the ground.
recording devices of language in mesoamerica, based on numbers. like a measuring tape
Hawkes Ladder of Inference
a pyramid that stacked the easier and hardest things to learn about an ancient civilization.
his list was this:
What is religion?
Beliefs and actions related to supernatural forces.
Ideology - intersection of religion and politics
Cosmology - world and it's creation
3 types of religion
1. Monotheism - believe in 1 god
2. Polytheism - believe in many gods
3. Pantheism - the universe is the god
Shaman vs Priest
Shaman - Transformation, healing, smaller societies
Priest - large scale societies
Most primitive form of religion
Mana - a spiritual force/energy
next was animism - belief in nature spirits and ancestral spirits
South Africa- symbolic ochre
aka. Cultural astronomy - cross cultural perceptions of time, calendar cycles, and cosmos.
New Fire Ceremony
Aztec Rite of Passage - every 52 years, break pots and re-light the city. Renewal
Past affects the present
Israel or Palestine?
USA - Less than 1 out of ten people consider themselves to have indigenous blood.
Mexico - More than 9/10 people consider themselves to have indigenous blood.
Threats to archaeological record
who owns the past?
What is legal vs what is ethical
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Museums need official documentation showing earlier acquisition.
Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. Protection of native american graves on federal property. gave native americans a voice.
Center for the Lives of Everday Familes. Most people spent the majority of their time in their kitchen.
Binford's cross cultural study
Residences of nomandic people tend to be more CIRCULAR than those of sedentary people.
Zapotec state at Monte Alban formed at
Craft specialization that is sponsored by elite patron or a political-religious institution
Order of social evolution
Band - tribe - chiefdom - state
The silica structure of plant cells
South east africa
Outlined the mechanics by which evolution works, natural selection
Pioneer in archaeological seriation
Understood English stratigraphy by noting chalk layers
Boucher de Perthes
Argued for the great antiquity of humans by noting stone tools in association with extinct animal species
CJ Thomas 3 age system
Ecofact vs artifact
Ecofact - seeds, nuts, pollen
Artifact - blade or man made
Remote sensing methods
Puritan grave stones lab
Skull and wings patterns
Dating methods that include seriation
Dating method that could date bones
Theory of Superposition
Older strata is lower in the ground
Potassium argon dating
Used to date earths earliest rocks
Inspiration or Atlantis Myth
Defeat if Athens in Peloponnesian war
Not type of analysis you could do using GIS
Radiometric resistivity analysis
If you want understand how features and structures are associated spatially
The Piltdown fossil
Exposed at a fraud using fluorine bone dating
Pacific Northwest village with great wet preservation
Rank size analysis
Indication if how integrated sites in a region are
Spread of cultural traits such as ideas and technology
Passive remote sensing method
How strata in a site are associated with one another
Order if field archaeology
Survey - remote sensing - excavation
Most precise dating method
Neolithic "iceman", in mountains above italy