Ancient Rome - After Midterm Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ancient Rome - After Midterm Deck (48):
1

Grieving

Grieving was public
It was a sign of toughness to grieve for a short time
can't wear purple clothes

2

Funeral Ceremony

1. Preparing the body
2. The funeral procession (slaves forced to cry)
3. Laments and speeches
4. Cremation and burial
5. Day of mourning (but a cyprus branch on your door)

3

Epicureanism

People follow Epicurus
His school was called "the garden"

Major ideas:
the highest good is pleasure (absence of pain)
everything in the universe consists of atoms
no fear of death
gods exist, but have no involvement with human life

figures:
Lucretius
Horace
Philodemus

4

Stoicism

Major ideas:
sought apathia (freedom from all passions)
Reasons (logos) a cosmic force
Life should be lived according to nature
political involvement
honor in choose when you die (self control)

figures:
Manilius
Seneca
Epictetus

5

Cynicism

Followed Diogenes (known as "dog")

Major ideas:
Rejected customs
Valued labor
Contempt for political leaders and famous people
Deliberately shocked public (masterbates in public)

figures:
Julian

6

Nero

Senecas successor

7

Wealth Roman House

1. Atrium
2. Impluvium
3. Dining Room
5. Tablinium
6. Garden
7. Commercial space

8

Cloaca Maxima

famous sewer
aqueducts - bridge that carried water

9

Bath process/routine

1. gather people and slaves to go to the baths
2. arrive, pay small fee IF THERE IS ONE (usually free)
3. change clothes
4. rubbed with olive oil
5. physical exercise in the palastra (to make you sweat)
6. dirt was scraped off with a strigil
7. enter the baths

10

Caldarium

the hot room of the baths

11

Tepidarium

The medium temp room of the baths

12

Frigidarium

The cold room of the baths

13

Heat of baths

Water was heat by simple boiler
Floors and walls were heated by a complex heat system under the floors

14

Life in the army (after Gaius Marius)

- any citizen was eligible to serve, regardless of wealth
- creation of a professional standing army
- recruits served for 20 years, and worked on public projects when there was peace
- after service, they settled on land; allies could earn their citizenship after service

15

Century, Cohort, Legion

1 century = 80 men
6 centuries = a cohort = 480 men
10 cohorts = a legion = 4800 men

16

Army weapons

sword
shield
javalins (thrown at the start of battle)
helment

17

Primiplius

Chief Centurion

18

Land reform of Tiberius Graccus

FAILED:
attempted to limit landholding to the wealthy
restricted landholding to 500 roman acres
public land to be redistributed to the poor by a commission

19

Who works the farm?

1. small property owners
2. sharecroppers
3. tenant farmers
4. slaves

20

Grain

- basis for Roman diet
- wheat and barely
- The 'Corn Dole' - people could receive free corn, to make sure poor people didn't starve

tools to make grain:
- roman mattock
- roman plow

21

Grapes/Types of Wine

1. Falernian wine - most prestigious wine
2. Mulsum - wine mixed with honey
3. Lora - wine for slaves

22

Shepards

Depicted as living a life of leisure when in actuality it was very difficult.

cows
horses, mules, donkeys (most valuable)
sheep
goats
pigs
poultry

23

Salt

Pliny - "without salt, it is impossible to lead a civilized life."
- type of currency in trading
- used in sacrifices
- use to make garum

24

3 Stages of Education

1. Litterator - elementary stage, age 6 or 7, learns basic reading, writing and math, kids used abacus
2. Grammatica - Second stage, age 10-14, bilingual, know both latin and greek, read great works of literature, lucky if you got to this stage
3. Rhetor - boys attended at 14 or 15, only the wealthiest could afford to go here, training in philosophy, history, astronomy (if your father was very rich, you could study abroad in Athens).

only 10 percent of Romans could read and write

25

Female education

only participated in litterator stage
romans wanted women to be literate, they just didn't have the education system.

26

Pax Romana

Peace after war

27

Origins of Gladiators

Funeral games? Gladiator shows as a funeral celebration
to humiliate captured enemies
military origin

28

The Hunt (Venatio)

staged hunt in the arena
Venator: normal dressed, hunting clothes
Bestiarius: high trained gladiator, armored
different exotic animals fight each other

29

Midday show

most people left (arena almost empty)
executions of criminals
forced combat

30

Who were Gladiators?

slaves
volunteers (people who wanted adrenaline)
female gladiators were extremely rare, eventually banned
infamia - lose reputation

31

types of gladiators

1. Murmillo - heavily armed, big, bulky, slow
2. Retiarius - holds 3 weapons, a net, a trident and a dagger, fast

32

Gladiator outcome

Thumbs up = kill him
Thumbs down = save him

33

Circus/chariot racing

Chariot racing, most two wheels not 4
drivers were slaves or freedmen
owned my the managers of the team
Four teams = white, reds, blues and greens

34

Types of towns

1. Colonia - new land
2. Muncipium - already there, colonized

35

Publican

independent tax collector

36

Bondicca

British warrior queen

37

Roman ball games

Trigon - 3 people throw a ball each other in a circle
Hapastrum - agressive, football like game

38

Little Bandits

Popular roman board game, gambling. Augustus was an emperor addicted to gambling.

39

Types of magic

1. curses (curse someone with defixio, lead tablet, that was buried near them).
2. love magic - louve doll (vodoo doll)
Penis was a symbol to ward off the evil eye

40

magical words

abra cadabra
"sator" square

41

The golden ass

story about Lucius who is accidentally turned into an ass by Photis, a slave of Pamphile. Byrrnhena warned Lucius that Pamphile was a witch. The egyptian goddess Isis turns Lucius into a man again, and Lucius shaves his head and follows Isis as part of his religion.

42

Pompey

Roman general who besieged Jerusalem. Created Judea, which was ruled by kings known as herods.

43

Second Temple

In 70AD, romans destroyed jerusalem and burned down the second temple. Captured a large fortress known as a masada. Most jew killed themselves when the Romans attacked.

44

Roman views of Jewish communities

1. separatist, dangerous - Because the jews kept to themselves, Romans though the jews hated them and that they were anti-roman. Jews thought it was horrible to expose babies.
2. proselytizing
- Jews tried to convert other people
3. Sabbath
- Jews custom rest day, every 7th day. Romans adopted this custom.
4. Circumcision
5. Dietary rules

45

Letters of Pliny and Trajan

Letters that inform Pliny to help prosecute the christians on a list of names but Pliny doesn't understand why the should be prosecuted. Being christian wasn't illegal. Trajan agrees with pliny and think the christians should have to be proved guilty before prosecution. Anyone could prove they weren't christian by worshipping roman gods.

46

Early Christians

Greek speaking community
low social status, given slave names
meeting in private houses
catacombs - underground tunnels where rituals were preformed

47

Prejudice against Christians

1. Christianity was a club or political organization
2. Treasury - romans though christians were amassing tons of money, possibly to use against them
3. hatred for mankind
4. cannibalism, if you weren't roman you were savage
5. incest/illicit sexual behavior - romans though christian private meetings were orgies

48

Spread of christianity

Battle of Milvian bridge in 312 AD. Constantine the great, first emperor to convert to christianity. Romans put the christian symbol on their flag because in Constantine's dream, he was told that if he did, rome would win the battle. they won. every emperor after that was christian, except for one.