Anesthesia Review Flashcards Preview

Brain and Behavior II > Anesthesia Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anesthesia Review Deck (97):
1

What class of drug is thiopental?

Barbiturate

2

The electrical potential at which the sodium channel goes from the closed to the open state is also known as?

Threshold potential

3

Do local anesthetics work at the internal or external membrane of the sodium channel?

Internal membrane

4

Thiopental is a strong base or strong acid?

Strong acid

5

Which intravenous anesthetic also has a post-operative effect against nausea/vomiting (anti-emetic properties)?

propofol

6

The unconsciousness induced by inhaled anesthetics is reversible or non-reversible?

Reversible

7

Ketamine is most like what drug?

PCP

8

What is the treatment for local anesthetic toxicity?

Intralipid

9

True or False: Local anesthetics do not block sympathetic nerve

FALSE

10

What is the effect of inhaled anesthetics on EEG?

"flatten it" isoelectric EEG

11

What disease is associated with inhaled anesthetics that increase the patient's temperature and may result in death?

Malignant hyperthermia

12

Which inhaled anesthetic is least soluble in blood?

Desflurane

13

Which intravenous anesthetic resulted in more deaths at Pearl Harbor than the actual attack?

Thiopental

14

Emergence from inhaled anesthetics depends on which: elimination or metabolism?

Elimination

15

Which local anesthetic has more rapid onset: Bipivucaine (pKa= 8.1); Lidocaine (pKa=7.9)

Lidocaine (pKa is closer to that of body's pH)

16

Which induction agent is contraindicated in patients with egg allergy?

propofol

17

Which intravenous anesthetic has minimal effects on cardiovascular system?

Etomidate

18

For which of the following drugs is the MOA clear: intravenous anesthetics, inhaled anesthetics, local anesthetics?

local anesthetics

19

Rapid induction of anesthesia is achieved with an inhaled or intravenous anesthetic?

Intravenous

20

Maintenance of anesthesia occurs typically with an inhaled or intravenous anesthetic?

Inhaled

21

What hair color increases MAC?

Red

22

What is the effect of inhaled anesthetics on minute ventilation?

Goes down

23

For the inhaled anesthetics, speed of onset is determined by which property?

Blood solubility

24

What gas is typically administered for analgesia?

Nitrous oxide (used a lot in labor)

25

What is the effect of inhaled agents on uterine tone?

decreases uterine tone

26

What does injection of intravenous opioids do to MAC?

decreases (i.e. when given opioids, you don't need as much anesthetic)

27

What do inhaled anesthetics do to the body's response to low blood oxygen?

Depresses this response

28

What do inhaled agents do to bronchomotor tone?

Relax it

29

What do inhaled agents do to cerebral blood flow?

Increases it (this is why increased cranial pressure is a contraindication)

30

The inhaled agents are supplied from the manufacturer in what form?

Liquid

31

What class of drugs are the inhaled anesthetics?

Ethers

32

For the termination of a drug's effect, which is more important: redistribution or elimination?

Redistribution

33

What drug is contraindicated in patients with acute intermittent porphyria?

Thiopental

34

What does propofol do to cerebral blood flow?

Decreases it

35

What is the amount of IV anesthetic to prevent awareness?

We don't know

36

Which IV anesthetic can also be given IM

ketamine (we use it for patients that have no IV access)

37

In addition to potassium chloride and pancuronium (sp?), which IV anesthetic is used for lethal injection?

Thiopental

38

Thiopental causes hypotension by myocardial depression and...?

Vasodilation

39

The term for the concept that the longer you infuse a drug, the longer it takes to eliminate?

Context-sensitive half-life

40

The term for how drugs get to the effect site

Pharmacokinetics

41

The term for drug effect as a result of receptor binding

Pharmacodynamics

42

What is the most common cause of death among anesthesiologists under 35

substance abuse

43

Give an example where EMLA ointment would be used?

lumbar puncture in pediatric patients

44

Which local anesthetic is also used as an anti-arryhthmic?

lidocaine

45

Which of the following OTC drugs contains a local anesthetic: hydrocortisone; Tylenol PM; Bactim; Milk of magnesia

Bactim

46

What agent is added to a local anesthetic to prolong the duration of blockade?

Epinephrine

47

When a certain area receives anesthetic and this area does not respond to natural stimuli, this is also known as?

Regional Anesthesia

48

What property of a local anesthetic influences its duration?

lipid solubility (also determines its potency)

49

What protein channel do local anesthetics work on?

Sodium channels

50

Which of the two stereoisomers of buvivicaine (sp?) is more cardiotoxic?

R enantiomer

51

What type of local anesthetic is cocaine?

Ester

52

Inhaled anesthetics have been linked to the progression of which disease in adults?

Alzheimer's Disease

53

The populational variance of inhaled anesthetics is large or small?

Small

54

Induction of anesthesia occurs at the beginning, middle, or end of anesthesia?

Beginning

55

The concentration of inhaled anesthetic necessary to prevent awareness is higher or lower than the amount needed to movement to pain?

Lower

56

Which inhaled anesthetic has the highest MAC?

Desflurane

57

Why is propofol used for sedation in the ICU?

it's quickly reversible

58

Which induction agent is also metabolized in the lungs and small intestine?

Propofol

59

Which local anesthetic was first used for surgery?

Cocaine

60

Which local anesthetic is more rapidly metabolized when injected intravenously?

Esters

61

Which organ metabolizes amide local anesthetics?

Liver

62

Is there an antagonist to the inhaled anesthetics?

No

63

Which depends on drug metabolism: distribution half-life or elimination half-life

Elimination half-life

64

Propofol potentiates the effects of which neurotransmitter?

GABA

65

The primary termination of clinical effectiveness in local anesthetics is what?

Redistribution half-life

66

Local anesthetics bind to which configurations of the sodium channel?

Open and inactive

67

The aromatic ring of the local anesthetic is hydrophilic or lipophilic?

Lipophilic

68

Which local anesthetic has greater potential for allergic reaction?

Ester (one I in generic name)

69

Which intravenous anesthetic does not depress respiration?

Ketamine

70

Which will achieve a peak level first: inhaled or intravenous anesthetics?

Intravenous

71

Inhaled anesthetics has been linked to the progression of which disease in kids?

Developmental delay (learning disability)

72

In the resting state, the sodium channel is in what configuration?

Closed

73

What is the first symptom of toxicity from lidocaine?

Numbness of tongue

74

Which local anesthetic causes vasoconstriction?

Cocaine

75

Inhaled anesthetics with a low blood solubility will have a slow or fast onset of action?

Fast

76

Which anesthetic agent would be best for someone scheduled to go home?

Propofol

77

When the entire body does not respond to noxious stimuli, that's also known as?

General Anesthesia

78

What is the breakdown product of ester local anesthetics?

Para-benzoic acid (PABA)

79

Which IV anesthetic increases intracranial pressure?

Ketamine

80

Which organ is the primary site of metabolism for IV anesthetics?

liver

81

Do inhaled agents provide analgesia?

Yes

82

What do local anesthetics bind in the blood?

Albumin and alpha-1 glycoprotein

83

What is the effect of inhaled anesthetics on blood pressure?

Decreases it

84

Which IV anesthetic increases ICP and cerebral blood flow?

Ketamine

85

Local anesthetics are weak acids or weak bases?

Weak bases

86

The pKa of a local anesthetic determines what of the anesthetic?

The speed of onset

87

Name the two intermediate chains of local anesthetics

esters and amides

88

What is the term for the concentration of vapor that prevents movement and response to surgical incision in 50% of population?

MAC: minimum alveolar concentration

89

Which term describes an unaware patient who does not respond to pain?

anasthesia

90

Which of the following organs has the greatest uptake of local anesthetic following accidental IV injection: stomach, brain, muscle, skin?

brain

91

Which IV anesthetic has analgesic properties?

Ketamine

92

What determines speed of onset of inhaled anesthetics, assuming same concentration and minute respiration?

Blood solubility

93

What is the effect of inhaled anasthetics on temperature?

Decreases it

94

What property of a local anesthetic influences its potency?

Lipid solubility

95

Which IV anasthetic causes adrenocortical suppression?

Etomidate

96

What enzyme hydrolyzes ester local anasthetics?

pseudocholinesterase

97

True/False: Anti-histamines have sedative hypnotic effect?

TRUE