Why are anticholinergics usually given with premedication in neonatal patients?
Neonates/pediatrics dependent on heart rate for cardiac output, so they're not able to increase contractility or increase stroke volume very well
What is the minimum PCV at which cells can still carry oxygen to tissues?
This correlates to 7 mg/dL Hb
What sedatives do you want to avoid in patients with GDV? Why?
acepromazine & alpha2-agonists
- acepromazine causes hypotension
- even low doses of alpha2-agonists can decrease cardiac output by 50%
In a patient with hypothyroidism, would you expect increased or decreased metabolic rate and drug excretion?
which means anesthetic drugs are going to be prolonged, etc
What is a possible cause of this ECG?
- Normal ECG in a horse
- Increased sympathetic tone
Why do you want to mildy hyperventilate patients with renal disease?
Want to blow off CO2 because these patients are normally acidotic and this will decrease CO2
T/F: Avoid ketamine in patients with GDV due to potential for hypotension
Name the nephrotoxic breakdown product of sevoflurane degraded by CO2 absorbents:
What is the basic MAC value for Halothane?
What differences do we see in birds compared to mammals with regard to the diaphragm?
Birds do not have a diaphragm
I have graciously included a picture of an avian diaphragm below.
Name the drug that is a phenol derivative and supports bacterial growth:
Phenolic compound causes RBC hemolysis with repeated administration and low glucuronide capacity
What drug is used for etorphine reversal?
Has agonist properties (NOT for use in human exposure emergency)
Autoregulation of CBF is very effective when systemic MAP is between _____ and _____ mmHg
Autoregulation of CBF is very effective when systemic MAP is between 60 and 140 mmHg
T/F: Phenylephrine is a significant vasoconstrictor
What are the 3 important variables to consider with low-level laser therapy?
wavelength, power, and treatment time
Wavelength (determines tissue penetration)
- 630 to 740 nm for AP point stimulation and wound healing
- 750 to 1500 nm for treating ligaments, joint capsule, and intra- articular structures
Power (measured in watts or milliwatts)
- More power is not necessarily better, and may even do harm
- Treatment time needed to deliver joules of energy
If you're anesthetizing a geriatric patient with renal disease, it is important to maintain MAP > _____ mmHg
If you're anesthetizing a geriatric patient with renal disease, it is important to maintain MAP > 70 mmHg
What is the appropriate temperature for most reptile species?
Remember that reptiles are ectotherms, so they rely on external or environmental heat sources for thermoregulation.
It is CRUCIAL to maintain each species at OPTIMUM preferred T
You can gain IV access in turles via the ________ coccygeal vein and in lizards via the __________ coccygeal vein
You can gain IV access in turles via the dorsal coccygeal vein and in lizards via the ventral coccygeal vein
Why might you want to avoid ketamine in a CNS patient?
Ketamine increased skeletal muscle tone, which increases ICP. So if you DO use ketamine, make sure you use it with a muscle relaxant so you don't increase ICP
What is the main negative CV effect associated with IPPV?
Decreased venous return
- Negative pressure is not generated during inspiration, so venous return to the heart is not enhanced
- IPPV may actually physically impede venous return to the right side of the heartdecreased stroke volume, cardiac output, and arterial blood pressure
- Exacerbated by prolonged inspiratory time, PEEP/CPAP, obstruction to exhalation, and an excessively rapid respiratory rate
- The CV effects can be overcome often with expansion of the extracellular fluid volume and administration of inotropic drugs
Dynorphin activates __________, and inhibits noceceptive signals to brain
What is the preferred induction drug for a patient with cardiovascular disease?
etomidate + diazepam
Start with lower than normal dose initially and give at a slower rate. Transient ventricular arrhythmias can occur during induction, have lidocaine ready. Post-induction apnea can occur, so plan to give IPPV
What differences do we see in birds compared to mammals with regard to the trachea?
Birds have complete tracheal rings!
Do not use cuff inflation in birds!
Name 4 or 5 drugs that reduce cerebral metabolic requirement for oxygen (CMRO2):
Decreased CMRO2 is seen with CNS depression
Decreased CMRO2 is protective
How long should food and water be withheld from rabbits and rodents prior to anesthesia?
Rabbits and rodents do NOT vomit, so food/water are NOT withheld. We also don't withhold food/water because these animals are very metabolic and prone to hypoglycemia
What electrolyte abnormalities are Addisonian patients especially prone to developing?
hyperkalemia & hyponatremia
(Na:K ratio < 25:1)
IVF therapy with a balanced electrolyte solution (15- 20 ml/kg/hr) or 0.9% NaCl if hyperkalemic and hyponatremic
Ocular reflexes are a good indicator of anesthetic depth. The bovine eye rotates __________ during light planes of anesthesia
Intraosseous (IO) fluid therapy is more stable than IV in birds.
Name two routes for IO fluid therapy in the bird.
Name two routes for IO fluid therapy that you want to AVOID the bird.
- Good routes: Tibia (proximal) & Ulna (distal)
- AVOID: humerus & femur
Can you use anticholinergics in rabbits?
Avoid atropine! Rabbits have atropinesterase that breaks it down very quickly. Use glycopyrrolate instead
Following a bilateral thyroidectomy, calcium should be monitored for _____ days
Hypocalcemia occurs in 15-82% of cats following bilateral thyroidectomy. So calcium should be monitored daily for 5 days postop and treatment only needed if clinical signs develop