Flashcards in Animal Behaviour Deck (21)
What are the different emotional systems? (5)
•Fear-anxiety - look for ears down/back and no eye contact.
•Social play (if another individual present).
What is ethology?
•The study of behaviour - subjective as cannot fully study without human interference.
What do ethologists study? (10)
•Natural behaviour/species-specific behaviour.
•Animals in their natural environment.
•Animals in artificial environment.
•Relationships among conspecifics.
•How animals are influenced internally (hormones, genetics) e.g. mother internally motivated to protect baby in wild, e.g.2 baby has internal motivation to be warm/with mother or externally (environment, rearing).
•Prey vs predator behaviour (emotional system).
•Social (obligatory e.g. cats/non-obligatory) or solitary e.g. bear.
•Individual hunting or pack hunting.
•Altricial = young infants that rely a lot on mothers e.g. humans or prosocial = when infants born motivated to survive - get up straight away.
•Burrowing or non-burrowing for captivity, rabbits need to burrow and exhibit behaviour and motivation, guinea pigs = non-burrowing due to where they come from, don't actively need to dig deep into substrate.
How do you use behaviour as an outward display of mental state? (4)
•Physical and emotional health play role in good animal welfare.
•Physical health = clinical signs (symptoms) that animal shows.
•Emotional health = behaviour displayed, identifying motivations for an action aids in recognising emotional state.
•Environment and interaction (human/non-human) has role in emotional state of animal.
What is Pankepp's emotional system?
•Animals have an emotional system, it is important to ensure they are in a positive state.
What are the positive emotional states? (5)
•Desire seeking (resources to survive), care (lust), sexual, social play systems involved.
•Don't change with age - just changes in context.
•Responses are species and situation specific.
•High energy demand.
•Need to understand species behaviour to recognise this.
What are the negative emotional states? (4)
•Panic-grief - e.g. calf being taken from mother, can put with other calves as all are seeking contact.
•Frustration - not achieving an expected outcome.
What are the different branches of responses a dog could jump from in a negative emotional state? (4)
•Appeasement - looking for information, social animals.
•Inhibitiion - observation for information.
•Repulsion - moving the thing away.
•Avoidance - moving away.
Why do people say dogs suddenly show a negative response ("jumping too quickly up the aggression ladder" e.g. from yawning, nose licking, blinking to biting)
•Arousal escalates the behaviour that is exhibited, look for displacement behaviour.
What are displacement behaviours? (3)
•Normal behaviours in an abnormal context e.g. dogs playing and they suddenly yawn.
•Associated with high arousal levels (can be +ive or -ive).
•E.g. Lip licking, head shaking, yawning, shaking, head-turning.
•When you observe displacement behaviours, they build up (tap needs emptying), will need to rest the dog, dog can shift from different branches e.g. avoidance and frustration.
What are the ways in which you can improve recognising expressions and behaviour? (3)
•Avoid 'humanising' animal behaviour.
•Recognise that behaviour can help interpret the emotional state the animal is in.
•Teamwork between the veterinary behaviourist (what is causing this behaviour, genetics? manage, drugs?) and clinical animal behaviourist.
What is learning theory? (2)
•1). Classic conditioning - learning through association, linking two stimuli to produce a learned response e.g. tuning fork and food leads to salivation.
•2). Operant conditioning - rewards and punishments for behaviour e.g. adding something to stop the behaviour, positive reinforcement, negative punishment to prevent and negative reinforcement to encourage.
What is the purpose of a snuffle mat?
•To allow the dog to explore and lower their arousal levels, induces a positive emotional state.
What is a common problem about using a head collar on a dog?
•If it moves, it will get closer to the dog's eyes, the face is very sensitive (they don't like things around their face); they are more inhibited.
•Better to find out why the dog is pulling away and work with the animal.
What principle does a clicker use?
•Positive reinforcement - shaping the desired behaviour.
What can happen if you click too late or click but reward too late?
•It will lead to the extinction of the previous behaviour, leads to confusion as you need to associate the click with treats.
Why is training to put a muzzle on important?
•Allows dog to see it as a positive experience instead of triggering a negative emotional state.
What is the purpose of a puzzle feeder? (2)
•To provide mental stimulation and improve cognition, easy for the owner to buy online.
•Need to monitor its use + provide animal with appropriate one - to ensure it provides enough mental stimulation/isn't too challenging or it will lead to negative emotional system e.g. frustration.
What does sensitisation mean?
•Having a strong, intense, over-stimulated response e.g. cars and fireworks for dogs.
What does habituation mean? (2)
•Having no or a low response to a stimuli e.g. cars for humans.
•When socialising puppies, they need habituation in order to be desensitised from stimuli e.g. introduce loud firework sounds at a low volume.