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Flashcards in Animal Biology Deck (66)
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What are the four major types of tissues?

Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous


Describe the general characteristics and functions of epithelial tissue

Occurs as sheets of cells. Cover the outside of body or line organs and cavities. Act as barriers due to tight junctions. Act as dynamic interfaces with environment.


Describe the general characteristics and functions of connective tissue

Sparse populations of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix. Holds tissues and organs in place.


Describe the general characteristics and functions of muscle tissue

Contain filaments that contract. Characteristics include flexible, elastic, and electrical excitability. Aids in bodily movement, maintains posture. Three types: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac. Cardiac muscle has nucleus and intercalated discs. Skeletal muscle has nuclei, sarcomeres, myofibril. Smooth muscle has nucleus and muscle fibres.


Describe the general characteristics and functions of nervous tissue

Functions in the receipt, processing, and transmission of information. Consists of nerve cells which transmit information, and support cells called glial cells.


Name two examples of epithelial tissue and how they display the general characteristics of the tissue

Skin and lungs. Skin is stratified tissue; it is multilayered and regenerates. Lungs are simple squamous tissue; it is platelike, for exchange.


Name two examples of connective tissue and how they display the general characteristics of the tissue

Blood and Bone. Blood is a liquid extracellular matrix called plasma containing RBCs and WCBs. Bone is formed from a matrix of collagen deposited by osteoblasts, which is combine with minerals


Name two examples of muscle tissue and how they display the general characteristics of the tissue

Three types of muscle tissue; smooth, skeletal, and cardiac. Smooth includes organ walls, blood vessel walls. Skeletal insludes large body muscles. Cardiac mslce includes heart wall.


Name two examples of nervous tissue and how they display the general characteristics of the tissue

Brain and spinal cord.


What is the excretory system's two functions for maintaining homeostasis?

Excretion and Osmoregulation


What is excretion

Process where body removes nitrogenous waste products, deactivated drugs, toxins, and excess solutes from the body


What is osmoregulation

Process where body balances intake and loss of water and solutes


How does excretory system help you maintain homeostasis when you are dehydrated (Why is urine darker-coloured when you are thirsty)?



What is water intoxication

consuming too much water and or losing too any salts through sweating


What are nephrons

The basic structural and functional unit of the kidney. Its chief function is to regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest as urine.


4 steps nephrons do to complete its function

Filtration, reabsorption, secretion and excretion


What is a glomerulus

Ball of capillaries *


What is the Bowman's capsule



What is glomerular filtrate

Fluid that escaped into nephron after being filtered by the glomerular capillary walls.


What happens in Filtration

High blood pressure in capsule causes fluid to be pushed out of blood vessel to be captured by nephron. Glomerulus capillary walls act like a filter (to keep blood cells and other large particles within blood vessel) the fluid that escaped into nephron is called glomerular filtrate.


What happens in reabsorption

Glomerular filtrate containing water and valuable is reabsorbed by nephron. Blood vessel that takes blood away from glomerulus remains adjacent ti nephron so reabsorbed solutes & water efficiently moves back into blood by diffusion and osmosis.


What happens in secretion

One way to conserve water is to concentrate as much metabolic waste into as small volume of urine as possible. Kidney actively transports wastes into filtrate as it is processed into urine


What happens in excretion

Once filtrate has been processed (through reabsorption and secretion) it becomes concentrated urine that is ready to be excreted from your body when you urinate


Explain what happened to the other 158.5 L of fluid that entered the nephron as glomerular filtrate



Explain how we replenish water lost from our bodies (be specific about the organ systems and organs involved)



Explain why there are no protein in the glomerular filtrate or the urine (hint: proteins are very large molecules)



Explain why glucose concentrations are 120mg/100mL in the blood entering and exiting the glomerulus AND in the glomerular filtrate, but absent in the urine



Explain why urea concentrations are 30mg/100mL in the blood entering and exiting the glomerulus and in the glomerular filtrate, but at 2000mg/100mL in the urine



Explain the differences in concentration between the arterial blood entering the glomerulus and venous blood exiting the kidneys (the explanations for each solutes change in concentration are different)



List in sequential order the enzymes involved with digesting starch into simple sugars (monosaccharides). For each enzyme name the organ that produces it, and locations where it is active in digesting food