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Flashcards in Animal classification Deck (46):

What are the main characteristics of kingdom animalia?

Heterotrophs (must ingest organic molecules- herbivores, carnivores or omnivores), many eukaryotic cell that contains collagen, mostly sexual reproduction (diploid stage life cycle and haploid stage in reproduction) and the specific adaptations include muscle and nervous systems


What are the 9 groups of animalia?

Platythelminthes, Porifora, Nematoda, Mollusca, Chordata, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Arthopoda and Annelida


What are the main characteristics of Annelida?

Body segmentation (coelom divided into series of repeated parts-metamerism, metamere), complete digestive tract, segmentation allows for flexibility/motility, cluster nerve cells and excretory organs in metamere, nerve cords/blood vessels/digestive tract pass through wall and are unsegmented. Walls are septum (thin sheets of mesodermic tissue, isolating coelom). Each segment is ring like and similar. Soft bodies, round in cross section, repetition of organs in segments


What are the 3 classes in Annelida?

Polychaeta (polychaetes), Oligochaeta (oligochaetes/earthworms) and Hirudinea (Leech)


What are the main characteristics of Arthropoda?

Evolved from annelids, invertebrate, open circulatory system, organs for gas exchange, symmetrical, bodies segmented and covered with exoskeleton (head, thorax, abdomen) and moult to grow- end stage metamorphisis


List a few examples of Arthopoda

Butterfly, dragonfly and wasp


What are the main characteristics of Chordata?

Hollow nerve cord in dorsal side of body, notochord (flexible rod between nerve cord and digestive tract), cell structures in pharynx, digestive tube located behind mouth, post-anal tail, bilateral symmetry in some stage life cycle, have coelom (made from outgrowth of digestive tube-coelomates). All are deuterosomes (embryo development anus forms before mouth), body segmentation and true tissue shown.


What are the 3 subphylas of Chordata ?

Urochordata (tunicates- characteristics in larval stage), Cephalachordata (lancilate, show characteristics in adult stage) and vertebrata


What are the main characteristics of vertebrate chordata?

Enclosed brain by skull, skull and backbone contain vertebrate, skull and vertebrate are exoskeleton and have hard bone or cartilage


What are the 7 classes of vertebrate chordata and list examples?

Agnatha (Fish lacking jaws-lamprey, hagfish), Chondrichthyes (cartilagenous fish- sharks and rays), Osteichthytes (bony fish), Amphibia (Adapted to terrestrial and aquatic-frog, toad), reptilia (descendent of amphibia but land only- lizard, snake), Aves (birds) and Mammalia (hair and mammory glands- humans can be 3 types-monotremes, marsupials and eutherians)


What is a monotreme?

egg laying and feed on milk (platypus and echidna)


What is a marsupial?

Give birth to undeveloped young nursed in pouch (kangaroos, koalas)


What is a eutherian?

Placenta, joins embryo to uterus (humans, horses)


What are the types of Cnidaria? Give examples

Hydrozoa (diverse polyps, hydra), Schphozoa (jellyfish), Anthozoa (sea anenomes, corals) and Cubozoa (cuboidal swimming cups)


What are the main characteristics of Cnidaria?

Radically symmetrical, body types-polyp and medusa, mouth leads direct to gastrovascular cavity (incomplete digestive system), carnivores (capture prey using cnidocytes), 2 layered tissue seperated by gelatinous layer (mesoglea). outer layer is dermis and inner is gastrodermis (forms body cavity). Functions performed by individual tissue


What is the polyp body type?

cylindrical body, tentacles on 1 end and anchored to something on the other


What is the medusa body type?

Umbrella shaped body, fringed by tentacles, floats freely


What are the main characteristics of Echinodermata?

Almost all marine, Radically symmetrical when fully grown, no body segmentation, coelom made from digestive tube


What are the 5 classes of Echinodermata?

Blastozoa (extinct), Crinozoa (sea lillies), Echinozoa (sea urchins), Asterozoa (starfish) and Homalozoa (extinct)


What are the main characteristics of mollusca?

Muscular foot for locomotion, mantle covers animal, have external calcium carbonate shell, mantle used for respiration, waste disposal and sensory reception, complete digestive tract, coelom developed from solid cell masses, mantly cavity houses gills, are protosomes and organs suspended in mesentary tissue with mesodermic coelom between ectoderm and endoderm


What are the 7 classes of mollusca?

Polyplacophora (chitons), aplacophora (molluscs without shells), Monoplascophora (molluscs with 1 shell), Schapoda (molluscs with tubular shells), Gastropoda (gastropods, snails), Bivalvia (Bivalves) and Cephalopoda (Cephalopods, squids, octupuses)


What are the main characteristics of Nematoda?

roundworms (cylindrical worms with no apparent head), cuticle (tough outer layer of nonliving skin protection), alimentary canal (seperate mouth and anus), psuedocoelomates (internal body space surrounding endodermic tissue of digestive tract), can be parasitic or free living and no distinct classes


What are the main characteristics of Porifera?

All species sponge, simplest animals (no true tissue), majority radically symmetrical, 3 layers- outer (flattened cells and pores), skeletal cells (spongin or mineral containing particles), inner most (choanocytes)


What are the 3 class of porifera?

Calcera (rigid calcium carbonate), Demospongia (majority sponges), Hexactinellida (many extinct, silicia spines)


What are the main characteristics of Platythelminthes?

All flatworms, primitive, bilaterally symmetrical, primitive brains, 2 long nerve cords (top to end), lack complete digestive tract


What are the classes of Platythelminthes?

Turbellaria (free living worms), Trematoda (flukes, live as parasites), Monogenea (flukes) and Cestoldea (tapeworms)


What is bilateral symmetry?

Divisble into symmetrical halves


What is radial symmetry?

Symmetry about a central axis


What is asymmetrical?

Cannot cut to be symmetrical halves


What is the gastrovascular cavity?

Digestive cavity, no anus, excess food/waste exits through mouth. Serves as digestion and circulation


What are coelomates?

Animals that have coeloms from outgrowth of digestive tube


What is a coelom?

Made from digestive tube or cell masses. Principal body cavities located between intestinal canal and body wall.


What is segmentation?

Allows for flexibility and mobility


What is protostome?

Multicellular organsim, mouth develops from primary embryonic opening


What is dueterostrome?

anus forms before mouth in embryonic development


What is a vertebrate and non vertebrate?

Has backbone and/ or spinal column or lacking backbone


What is asexual?

Reproduction from single organism


What is sexual?

Fusion of female and male gametes


What is parthenogenesis?

Forms from egg of female without male sperm. Type of asexual reproduction


What is alternation of generation?

Alternation of sexual and asexual phases


What is the open and closed circulatory system?

Blood can be open to digestive tract or using arteries, veins and capillaries


What is exothermic and endothermic?

Releasing of heat and absorption of heat


What is autotrophs?

Organsim capable of synthesizing own food from inorganic substances using light/chemical energy


What is a heterotroph?

Derives nutrition from plant/animal matter


What is a chemoautotroph and photoautotroph?

Chemo obtains energy through chemosynthesis and photo obtains energy through photosynthesis


What are the 5 subphylums of arthropoda?

Trilobitomorpha (3 lobes, compound eyes), Chelicerata (arm like feeding appendages-spiders, mites, ticks), Crustacea (mouthpart are mandibles, 2 pairs of antennae- lobsters and crabs), Hexapoda (head, thorax, abdomen-grasshoppers and butterflies) and Myriapoda (numerous segments, 1 pair antennae-centipedes and millipedes)