Flashcards in Animal Ethics Deck (9):
What is an animal, in the context of research?
Live non-human vertebrate (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals encompassing domestic animals, purpose-bred animals, livestock, wildlife and cephalopods).
When is use of an animal justified?
- Scientific/educational merit. There is potential benefit for humans, animals, environment.
- Use of animals is essential to achieve stated aims and suitable alternatives are unavailable
- Minimum number of animals used
- Minimum adverse impact on the wellbeing of the animals involved.
What is replacement?
Replacement of animals with other methods.
What is reduction?
Number of animals must be the minimum necessary to achieve the proposed aims and to satisfy good statistical design.
What is refinement?
Refinement of techniques used to minimise the adverse impact on animals. Steps must be taken at all times to support and safeguard animal wellbeing.
What are some examples of replacement?
Epidemiological data, physical and chemical analysis, computational/mathematical models and simulations, in vitro systems, non-sentient organisms, cadavers, clinical cases.
When considering reduction, what needs to be balanced?
Balance the number of animals used and the amount of pain one animal is subjected to.
What are examples of reduction?
Where practicable, animal tissue from killed animals must be shared amongst investigators or deposited in a tissue bank for subsequent distribution.