Organisation of the Nervous System Flashcards Preview

BMS1052 Human Neurobiology > Organisation of the Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Organisation of the Nervous System Deck (12):
1

Briefly describe each of the three meninges

Pia Mater- "Gentle Mother", surrounds the brain, in contact with majority of blood vessels.
Gap filled with SCF in between Pia and Ancharoid Maters.
Ancharoid Mater- spiderweb appearance, impermeable to fluid.
Dura Mater- tough and inelastic, surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

2

What is the role of the four ventricles in the brain and where are they located? What is the role of the cerebro-spinal fluid?

They are located in the core of the brain. Lined with ependymal cells, which produce SCF.
The role of SPF is to provide support for the brain and to carry waste from the brain to the blood.

3

What is the the blood-brain barrier and what is its role?

The tight junctions between endothelial cells and capillaries. They restrict the entry of macromolecules into the brain, including poisons. Some poisons are still able to get through though.

4

Why do some drugs that affect the cardiac system, including the heart, do no affect the brain?

Due to the blood-brain barrier in the brain.

5

True or false; glucose is able to passively diffuse into the brain from the blood vessels.

False, active transport is required.

6

What is the role of astrocytes regarding blood flow?

Astrocytes control blood flow by constricting blood vessels and dilating them depending on the activity of brain structures. They may not be part of the blood-brain barrier.

7

What is the role of the cerebellum?

Muscle memory in the form of connections.
Motor control, motor learning and co-ordination incorporating sensory feedback.
Implicated in cognitive functions, such as attention and language.

8

Explain the differences between the dorsal and ventral roots of the spinal cord.

The dorsal root carries sensory inputs, and is the site of axon entry of sensory neurons. Cell bodies of sensory neurons are in the dorsal root ganglion. The synapses are in the dorsal horn.
The ventral root carries motor outputs.
Sell bodies of motor neurons are in the ventral horn. Axons exit via the ventral root and extent to muscle fibres.

9

Which of the following terms is used to describe a map of the cortex based on cellular architecture?
Select one:
a. Nissl stain
b. Broadmann's areas
c. Phrenology
d. Encephalogram
e. Homunculus

Broadmann's areas

10

A structure that is continuous with cortical white matter and links the cortex with the thalamus forming part of the relay between the periphery and the brain is called the:
Select one:
a. Corpus callosum
b. Hypothalamus
c. Corticospinal tract
d. Reticular formation
e. Internal capsule

Both the internal capsule and corpus callosum are continuous with the cortical white matter, but the corpus callosum connects the two sides of the brain, whereas the internal capsule connects the thalamus with the cortex (“part” of the relay is a clue here). The corticospinal tract also passes through the internal capsule bridging the cortex and thalamus, but then continues on through the midbrain, pons, and finally the medulla, where it crosses over before entering the spinal cord. As part of a diffuse modulatory system, the reticular formation ranges from the brainstem to the thalamus, which then projects widely throughout the cortex.
The correct answer is: Internal capsule

11

The cerebral cortex:
Select one:
a. Is often described as the relay station for all synaptic inputs.
b. Is the origin of the majority of nerves.
c. Is a major division of the brain whose left side is dominant for fine motor control.
d. Coordinates/plans skilled voluntary muscle activity.
e. Is largely asymmetrical.

Is a major division of the brain whose left side is dominant for fine motor control

12

Olivia, a neuroscience graduate student, is studying the role of kinesin for her thesis. Through some molecular engineering she is able to turn off all synthesis of kinesin in a neuron. What would you expect to happen to this neuron?
Select one:
a. The neuron would no longer be able to fire action potentials.
b. Protein synthesis would cease.
c. Membrane-associated proteins would not be inserted in the membrane of the soma.
d. The axon terminals would begin to degenerate.
e. Rabies virus would not be transported to the soma.

The axon terminals would begin to degenerate.