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Flashcards in Animal Transport Deck (129)
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1

Describe an open circulatory system?

Blood is not always held within the blood vessels and can circulate through the body cavity so that cells are immersed directly in the blood.

2

How does an open circulatory system work in insects?

In insects it is achieved by a dorsal tube- shaped heart found under the upper surface of the insect. The heart will pump blood towards the head by peristalsis; it re-enters the heart through pores called ostia

3

Describe the open circulatory system of a locus?

.Blood bathes in the tissues directly
.Little control over direction of circulation
.No respiratory pigment
.Blood pumped at low pressure in to a fluid filled cavity - the haemocoel

4

How do locus' get their blood back to their head and heart?

Movement of muscles and valves assist

5

Why is an open circulatory system not appropriate for a larger more active animal?

Blood will flow at a low pressure through the body cavity and would therefore not be sufficient to supply the demand of the respiring cells in a larger more active animal

6

Describe a closed circulatory system?

.The blood is enclosed within the blood vessels
.Tissues are not in direct contact with the blood, a separate fluid called tissue fluid exits in the capillaries and bathes the cells.
.This allows the heart to pump at a higher pressure and therefore the blood can flow more quickly

7

What are the three advantages of a closed circulatory system?

1.The blood flow can be directed to where it is needed, by vasoconstriction and dilation.
2. The blood flow us more rapid and efficient
3. More efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients (glucose) and removal of waste products such as CO2

8

What type of circulatory system do fish have?

A single closed system

9

What is a single closed circulatory system?

The blood stays in vessels on a single pathway around the body. Blood only passes through the heart once, before returning to gills.

10

What is the route of the blood in a single closed system?

Heart
Gills
Body
Heart

11

Why do some mammals require a double circulatory system?

.They are endothermic (produce their own body heat)
.They have a high metabolic rate and high energy requirement
. They therefore require a large amount of glucose and oxygen and the removal of waste products such as CO2

12

Describe a double circulatory system?

A system consisting of a network of vessel which carry materials round the body in the blood, The heart pumps the blood and it goes twice through the heart.

13

What are the two component to a double circulatory system?

The Pulmonary system
The Systemic Circulatory system

14

What are the three advantages to a Double circulatory system?

1.The heart increases the pressure after it has passed through the lungs, so the blood flows more quickly to the body tissues,
2. More efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to body tissues.
3. The oxygen supply to heart muscles better

15

Between the systemic and pulmonary system, which can carry blood at a higher pressure?

The systemic

16

What is the structure of the mammalian heart?

.A 4 chambered pump for both pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems.
.A double pump working synchronously keeping oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separated

17

Describe the characteristics of the cardiac muscle?

The cardiac muscle is myogenic and therefore beats from within the muscle itself to never gets tired.

18

What is the function on the Vena Cava?

Returns blood from all organs except the lungs

19

What is the function on the Right Atrium?

receives blood from the body organs and pushes it into the ventricle

20

What is the function on the Avioventricular (tricuspid) valve?

Stops blood flowing back into the atrium as the ventricle contracts

21

What is the function on the Right ventricle?

Receives blood from the atrium and pushes it into the lungs

22

What is the function on the Pulmonary Artery?

Distributes blood to the lungs

23

What is the function on the Aorta?

Distributes blood to all organs except the lungs

24

What is the function on the Aortic valve?

Stops blood flowing back into the ventricle as the ventricle relaxes

25

What is the function on the left ventricle?

Receives blood from the atrium and pushes it to the body

26

What is the function on the Atrioventricular (bicuspid) valve?

Stops blood flowing back into the atrium as the ventricle contracts

27

What is the function on the left atrium?

Receives blood from the lungs and pushes it into the ventricle

28

What is the function on the Pulmonary Vein?

Returns blood from the lungs

29

What is the first step of the cardiac cycle?

.Atria fill with blood from the Vena Cava and pulmonary vein (all chambers relaxed)
.Pressure in the atria rises
.Blood trickles into ventricles through the open atrioventricular valves (bicuspid and tricuspid valves)

30

What occurs in Atrial Systole?

When the walls of the atria contracts. The volume of the atria decreases and the pressure increases, blood enters the ventricles down a pressure gradient.