Flashcards in Parasites Deck (19)
What three structural features aid Tapeworms in their survival?
1. Ribbon-like body (less than 10mm long)
2. Segmented body (Proglottids)
3. Head (scolex) of muscle containing suckers and hooks.
Where do Tapeworms breed?
In animal muscle tissue
What 7 factors help the survival of the tapeworm?
1. a means of penetrating the host
2. a means of attaching to the host
3. protection against the hosts immune system
4. only develop essential organs for survival
5. large egg production
6. an intermediate host
7. have resistant stages to overcome periods away from the host.
Why do tapeworms have a thick cuticle?
To prevent digestion by enzymes
Why do tapeworms have inhibitory substances?
To prevent digestion
Why are tapeworms thin and long?
To create a large surface area to volume ratio
How do tapeworms reproduce?
They contain both male and female sex organs
Why do tapeworms have a large number of eggs?
To maximise reproduction rate
What is the primary and secondary host for a tapeworm?
Primary hosts are humans
Secondary hosts are pigs
What do the tapeworm larvae form in the pigs muscle?
How do tapeworm enter the secondary host, pigs?
Pigs ingest the tapeworm larvae which is found in infected human faeces
How are the tapeworms passed from the pig to the human?
The cysts are ingested by humans when they consume undercooked pork, the larvae then attach to the intestine and mature.
What 8 factors are specific to the environment the tapeworm live in do they need to be adapted to?
1. Lack of oxygen
2. Extremeties in pH
3. Digestive juices and enzymes
4. Peristaltic waves in the intestines (muscular motion)
5. Being washed away by the food or juices
6. Being attacked by the immune system
7. Not killing the host
8. Avoid competition
Why do tapeworms have hooks and suckers on their scolex?
Allows for attachment to the gut wall which prevents them being swept through/ out of the body along with digestion.
Why do tapeworms have a lack of circulatory, digestive and gas exchange organs/ system?
A simple organ system geared towards reproduction, allows for less complications and an achievement of purpose.
Why do tapeworms have a long flattened body?
Their thin, long structure gives a large surface area to volume ratio for adsorption of pre-digested food from the host.
Why do tapeworms have a body covered in cuticle and secreted anti-enzymes?
The cuticle and enzymes prevent digestion by host enzymes.
Why do tapeworms have reproductive structures called proglottids?
It consists of many thin proglottids which maximise reproductive function