ANOVA, chi square and correlation (Finals) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ANOVA, chi square and correlation (Finals) Deck (79):
1

What is the difference between ANOVA and the t tests?

ANOVA can be used when there are two or more means being compared, whereas the t tests are limited to situations where only two means are involved. ANOVA - 3 or more t-test - 2 only

1

TRUE OR FALSE: The no-preference null hypothesis will always produce equal fe values.

True

2

Measure differences within treatment due to

Random, unsystematic factors

3

TRUE or FALSE: The test statistic for ANOVA is an F-ratio, which is a ratio of three sample variances.

False, two

4

A research study that involves only one factor is called a ________________

single-factor design

5

TRUE OR FALSE: When there are large differences between fo and fe, the value of chi-square would be small.

False, large

5

___________________ measures the direction and degree of linear (straight line) relationship between two variables.

Pearson correlation

6

TRUE or FALSE: F is near 1.00 if Ho is false.

False, true

7

A ________ is a statistical method used to measure and describe the relationship between two variables.

correlation

7

When both variables are dichotomous, the resulting correlation is called a ________.

phi-coefficient

8

TRUE or FALSE: The purpose of ANOVA is much the same as the t tests

True

9

The __________________________________________ is measured by the numerical value of the correlation. A value of 1.00 indicates a perfect relationship and a value of zero indicates no relationship.

degree of relationship (the strength or consistency of the relationship)

10

TRUE or FALSE: Chi-square is a hypothesis testing procedure for nominal variables

True

10

What are the categories of Ho for Chi-square test for goodness of fit?

1. No preference 2. No difference from a comparison population

10

The Pearson correlation requires that the scores be __________ from an ___________ scale of measurement.

numerical values interval or ratio

11

TRUE or FALSE: One of the assumption of parametric tests is that populations follow a normal curve

True

11

This is used in situations where the researcher wants to determine whether there are preferences among categories

No Preference Ho

12

TRUE or FALSE: A repeated-measures ANOVA eliminates the influence of individual differences from the analysis

True

13

What information is provided by the sign ( + or - ) of the Pearson correlation?

Direction

14

The frequency value that is predicted from the null hypothesis and the sample size

Expected frequency

15

The number of individuals from the sample who are classified in a particular category

Observed frequency

16

In analysis of variance an independent or a quasi-independent variable is called a _____

factor

17

A __________ measures the relationship between two variables (X and Y) while eliminating the influence of a third variable (Z).

partial correlation

18

This specifies the proportion of the population in each category

Null hypothesis

18

TRUE OR FALSE: The null hypothesis is used to generate a set of expected frequencies

true

18

TRUE OR FALSE: The typical chi square distribution is negatively skewed.

False, positively

19

Another strategy for non-normal distributions is to covert scores to _____

ranks

19

TRUE or FALSE: Non-parametric tests typically make assumptions about the shape of the distribution

False, Parametric tests

21

What are the two stages of the repeated ANOVA?

1. Divide the variability into two components (Between and within variances) 2.individual differences are measured and subtracted out of the denominator of the F-ratio.

22

Non=parametric tests are sometimes called ________________

Distribution-free tests

23

__________ measures the portion of variability in one variable that can be predicted using the relationship with the second variable.

coefficient of determination

24

A study with more than one factor is called a

factorial design

26

TRUE or FALSE: When the null hypothesis is true and there are no differences between treatments, the F-ratio is balanced.

True

27

_____________ is a statistical procedure that determines the equation for the straight line that best fits a specific set of data.

Regression

29

TRUE or FALSE: ANOVA allows researcher to evaluate all of the mean differences in a single hypothesis test

True

30

A ___________ means that the two variables tend to change in the same direction

positive correlation

32

TRUE or FALSE: The existence of a significant treatment effect is apparent if the data produce a balanced F-ratio.

False, unbalanced

34

Lists number of observations for each combination of categories

Contingency Table

35

TRUE OR FALSE: The general goal of chi-square test for goodness of fit is to compare the observed frequency with the alternative hypothesis.

False, Null hypothesis

35

_____________ are used to reveal the real, underlying relationship between two variables when researchers suspect that the apparent relation may be distorted by a third variable.

Partial correlations

36

What are the two divisions of variability?

1. Between treatment variance 2. Within treatment variance

38

ANOVA evaluates the ________ of the sample mean differences

significance

39

What level of data is used in non=parametric tests?

Nominal or ordinal

40

These tests are done after an ANOVA where H0 is rejected with more than two treatment conditions. The tests compare the treatments, two at a time, to test the significance of the mean differences.

Post hoc tests

40

3 aspects of relationship in a correlation

the direction the form the degree

41

The most common form of relationship is a __________________ which is measured by the ___________

straight line or linear relationship Pearson correlation.

42

The ____ of the relationship is measured by the sign of the correlation; either positive or negative

direction

43

This is used in situations where a specific population distribution is already known.

No difference hypothesis

44

TRUE OR FALSE: A small chi square value indicates that we should fail the null hypothesis

False, fail to reject

46

In chi-square tests, it is customary to present the scale of measurement as a ____________

series of boxes

47

The Spearman correlation is used when both variables are measured on __________

ordinal scales

48

It measures the relationship between two ordinal variables

Spearman correlation

50

TRUE or FALSE: Analysis of variance is necessary to protect researchers from excessive risk of a Type II error

False, Type I

52

This states that the population is divided equally among categories

No Preference Ho

53

It measures the consistency of direction of the relationship between two variables. The two variables must be converted to ranks before the ________ is computed.

Spearman correlation

54

This test determines how well the obtained sample proportions fit the population proportions specified by the null hypothesis

Chi-square test for goodness of fit

55

The value of __ is called the __________and determines the direction and degree to which the line is tilted.

b slope constant

56

The _________ formula can also be used to measure the relationship between two variables when one or both of the variables is dichotomous.

Pearson correlation

57

A ____________ means that the two variables tend to change in opposite directions

negative correlation

58

TRUE or FALSE: The goal of ANOVA is to determine whether the standard deviation that are obtained for sample data are sufficiently large to justify a conclusion that there are mean differences between the populations

False, Mean differences

59

TRUE or FALSE: A small treatment effect will produce a large value for the F-ratio

False, large

60

A ______ is one for which there are exactly two categories: for example, men/women or succeed/fail.

dichotomous variable

61

In situations where one variable is dichotomous and the other consists of regular numerical scores (interval or ratio scale), the resulting correlation is called a ______

point-biserial correlation.

63

This measures the magnitude of differences that would be expected without any treatment effects.

MSwithin

64

For an analysis of variance the common technique for measuring effect size is to ______________________ that is accounted for by the treatment effects.

compute the percentage of variance

65

What is the major distinction between the Pearson and Spearman correlations?

Spearman correlation is computed on ranks and so depicts monotonic relationships while Pearson correlation is on true values and depicts linear relationships.

66

What information is provided by the numerical value of the Pearson correlation?

Degree

67

The value of ____ is called the ______and determines the point where the line crosses the Y-axis.

a Y-intercept

68

Give an example of post hoc test

Scheffe test Tukey’s HSD

69

Measure differences between treatment due to

1. Systematic treatment effects 2.Random, unsystematic factors

70

Parametric tests require ________ from _____________ scale

a numerical score an interval or ratioq

71

TRUE OR FALSE: The chi-square goodness of fit test is designed to answer questions about proportions in the population.

True

72

This hypothesis testing procedure uses the proportions obtained from a sample distribution to test hypothesis about the corresponding proportions.

Chi-square test

74

The ANOVA simply establishes that differences exist, it does not indicate exactly which treatments are different.

True

75

TRUE OR FALSE: A correlation between two variables should not be interpreted as implying a causal relationship.

True

76

TRUE OR FALSE: Non-parametric tests are not as sensitive as parametric tests. they are more likely to fail in detecting difference between two treatments

True

77

The differences (or variance) between means can be caused by two sources:

1. Treatment Effects 2. Chance or Sampling Error

78

TRUE or FALSE: The hypothesis test does not necessarily provide information about the actual size of the mean differences.

True

79

The ideal, hypothetical sample that would be obtained if the sample proportions were in perfect agreement with the proportions specified in the null hypothesis.

Expected frequency