When the score categories (X values) are measurements from a nominal or an ordinal scale, the graph should be a _______.

bar graph

measures the fraction of the total group that is associated with each score

Proportion/ Relative Frequency

In a __________, a bar is centered above each score

histogram

scores pile up on one side of the distribution, leaving a "tail" of a few extreme values on the other side.

Skewed

the scores tend to pile up on the left side of the distribution with the tail tapering off to the right.

Positively skewed

presents an organized picture of the entire set of scores, and it shows where each individual is located relative to others in the distribution.

Frequency distribution

the scores tend to pile up on the right side and the tail points to the left.

Negatively skewed distribution

sum of the frequencies accumulated up to the upper boundary of a class in the distribution.

Cumulative frequency

circle that is divided into sections according to the percentage of frequencies in each category of the distribution.

Pie chart

allows you to estimate values within the interval by assuming that the fractional portions of one scale correspond to the same fractional portion of the other.

Interpolation

When the score categories consist of numerical scores from an interval or ratio scale, the graph should be either a ____________

histogram or a polygon

An organized tabulation showing exactly how many individuals are located in each category on the scale of measurement.

Frequency distribution

In a stem and leaf display, first occurrence is associated with the ____________

Lower leaf values

statistical measure that determines a single value that accurately describes the center of the distribution and represents the entire distribution of scores.

Central tendency

In a stem and leaf display, the second occurrence is associated with the

Upper leaf display

They are used to visually represent how many values are below a certain upper class boundary.

Cumulative frequency

___________ represent the accumulation of individuals (frequency) as it move up to the scale

Cumulative frequency

a mathematical process based on the assumption that the scores and the percentages change in a regular, linear fashion as you move through an interval from one end to the other

Interpolation

Purpose of the variability

to determine how spread out the scores are in a distribution.

Goals of central tendency

identify the single value that is the best representative for the entire set of data.

the balance point of the distribution because the sum of the distances below the mean is exactly equal to the sum of the distances above the mean.

Mean

most frequently occurring category or score in the distribution

Mode

You must use ________ to determine the corresponding ranks and percentiles when scores or percentages do not correspond to upper real limits or cumulative percentages

interpolation

distance between the first quartile and the third quartile

Interquartile range

When an X value is described by its rank, it is called a ___________.

percentile

most commonly used measure of central tendency

Mean

measure of the standard distance from the mean

Standard deviation

mean squared deviation and is obtained by finding the sum of the squared deviations and then dividing by the number.

Variance

Each ______________ identifies the percentile rank for the upper real limit of the corresponding score or class interval.

cumulative percentage

allows researchers to summarize or condense a large set of data into a single value.

Central tendency

This mean is used most often when the population is very large.

Sample mean

In a _________, a dot is centered above each score so that the height of the dot corresponds to the frequency

polygon

allows researchers to describe or present a set of data in a very simplified, concise form

Central tendency

Not influenced by extreme scores and more stable than the range

Semi-interquartile range

distance between the upper real limit of the largest X and the lower real limit of the smallest X in the distribution.

Range

square root of the variance.

Standard deviation

The most commonly used measure of variability in a distribution of test scores

Standard deviation

advantage of the median

it is relatively unaffected by extreme scores.

one-half the distance between the first interquartile and the third interquartile

semi-interquartile range

Four basic measures of variability

Range Interquartile and Semi-interquartile Variance Standard deviation

expected value of a random variable in a probability distribution is sometimes called the population mean

Population mean

One method for simplifying and organizing data is to construct a ________________.

frequency distribution

bar graph

When the score categories (X values) are measurements from a nominal or an ordinal scale, the graph should be a _______.

Proportion/ Relative Frequency

measures the fraction of the total group that is associated with each score

histogram

In a __________, a bar is centered above each score

Skewed

scores pile up on one side of the distribution, leaving a "tail" of a few extreme values on the other side.

Positively skewed

the scores tend to pile up on the left side of the distribution with the tail tapering off to the right.

Frequency distribution

presents an organized picture of the entire set of scores, and it shows where each individual is located relative to others in the distribution.

Negatively skewed distribution

the scores tend to pile up on the right side and the tail points to the left.

Cumulative frequency

sum of the frequencies accumulated up to the upper boundary of a class in the distribution.

Pie chart

circle that is divided into sections according to the percentage of frequencies in each category of the distribution.

Interpolation

allows you to estimate values within the interval by assuming that the fractional portions of one scale correspond to the same fractional portion of the other.

histogram or a polygon

When the score categories consist of numerical scores from an interval or ratio scale, the graph should be either a ____________

Frequency distribution

An organized tabulation showing exactly how many individuals are located in each category on the scale of measurement.

Lower leaf values

In a stem and leaf display, first occurrence is associated with the ____________

Central tendency

statistical measure that determines a single value that accurately describes the center of the distribution and represents the entire distribution of scores.

Upper leaf display

In a stem and leaf display, the second occurrence is associated with the

Cumulative frequency

They are used to visually represent how many values are below a certain upper class boundary.

Cumulative frequency

___________ represent the accumulation of individuals (frequency) as it move up to the scale

Interpolation

a mathematical process based on the assumption that the scores and the percentages change in a regular, linear fashion as you move through an interval from one end to the other

to determine how spread out the scores are in a distribution.

Purpose of the variability

identify the single value that is the best representative for the entire set of data.

Goals of central tendency

Mean

the balance point of the distribution because the sum of the distances below the mean is exactly equal to the sum of the distances above the mean.

Mode

most frequently occurring category or score in the distribution

Interquartile range

distance between the first quartile and the third quartile

percentile

When an X value is described by its rank, it is called a ___________.

Mean

most commonly used measure of central tendency

Standard deviation

measure of the standard distance from the mean

Variance

mean squared deviation and is obtained by finding the sum of the squared deviations and then dividing by the number.

cumulative percentage

Each ______________ identifies the percentile rank for the upper real limit of the corresponding score or class interval.

Central tendency

allows researchers to summarize or condense a large set of data into a single value.

Sample mean

This mean is used most often when the population is very large.

polygon

In a _________, a dot is centered above each score so that the height of the dot corresponds to the frequency

Central tendency

allows researchers to describe or present a set of data in a very simplified, concise form

Semi-interquartile range

Not influenced by extreme scores and more stable than the range

Range

distance between the upper real limit of the largest X and the lower real limit of the smallest X in the distribution.

Standard deviation

square root of the variance.

Standard deviation

The most commonly used measure of variability in a distribution of test scores

it is relatively unaffected by extreme scores.

advantage of the median

semi-interquartile range

one-half the distance between the first interquartile and the third interquartile

Range Interquartile and Semi-interquartile Variance Standard deviation

Four basic measures of variability

Population mean

expected value of a random variable in a probability distribution is sometimes called the population mean

frequency distribution

One method for simplifying and organizing data is to construct a ________________.