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Flashcards in Ant Abd Wall Deck (65)
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1

What are the names of the upper abdominal sections, lateral the midclavicular lines? B/w them? Middle? Lateral to middle? Lower middle? Lower lateral?

- Hypochondriacs
- Epigastric
- Umbilical
- Flanks
- Hypogastric/suprapubic/pubic
- Inguinal

2

Name the layers of the abdominal wall, superficial to deep?

1 - Skin
2 - Superficial Fascia (Camper’s, then Scarpa’s)
3 - External Oblique
4 - Internal Oblique
5 - Transverse Abdominis
6 - Transversalis fascia
7 - Extrapertioneal CT
8 - Peritoneum

3

Above the umbilicus, what makes up the superficial fascia?

Fat

4

Below the umbilicus, what makes up the superficial fascia?

Superficial: Fascia of Camper's (fatty)
Deep: Fascia of Scarpa's (membranous)

5

During descent of the testes, what does Camper's fascia become?

Dartos muscle

6

During descent of the testes, what does Scarpa's fascia become?

Colle's fascia

7

What are the 3 anterolateral mm. of the abd wall?

External oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis mm.

8

What are the 3 mm. that are close to the midline of the abd wall?

Rectus abdominis, pyramidalis (not always present), and cremaster mm.

9

External oblique m: OIIA?

O: External surfaces of ribs 5–12
I: Linea alba, pubic tubercle, anterior half of iliac crest

I: Ventral rami of six inferior thoracic nerves
A: Compresses and supports abdominal viscera, flexes and rotates trunk

10

Internal oblique m: OIIA?

O: Thoracolumbar fascia, anterior 2/3 of iliac crest, lateral half of inguinal ligament
I: Inferior borders of ribs 10–12, linea alba, pubis via conjoint tendon

I: Ventral rami of six inferior thoracic and first lumbar nerves
A: Compresses and supports abdominal viscera, flexes and rotates trunk

11

Transversus abdominis m: OIIA?

O: 7–12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, lateral third of inguinal ligament
I: Linea alba with aponeurosis of internal oblique, pubic crest, and pecten pubis via conjoint tendon

I: Ventral rami of six inferior thoracic and first lumbar nerves
A: Compresses and supports abdominal viscera

12

Pyramidalis m (not too important): OIIA?

O: Body of pubis, anterior to rectus abdominis
I: Linea alba

I: Iliohypogastric nerve
A: Tenses linea alba

13

Rectus abdominis m: OIIA?

O: Pubic symphysis, pubic crest
I: Xiphoid process, costal cartilages 5–7

I: Ventral rami of six inferior thoracic nerves
A: Flexes trunk, compresses abdominal viscera

14

Where is the insertion of the cremaster m?
Nerve supply?
Action?

- Pubic tubercle
- Genital branch of genitofemoral n.
- Suspends testes and is part of the cremasteric reflex

15

What is the rectus sheath and what comes together to form it?

- An aponeurotic sheath
- Formed by aponeuroses of the internal/external obliques + transversus abdominus mm.

16

What is contained within the rectus sheath?

- 2 mm: rectus abdominus and pyramidalis
- 2 vessels: inferior and superior epigastric vessels
- Lower 6 intercostal nn.

17

What forms the anterior rectus sheath layer above the arcuate line? Below?

Above: Aponeuroses of internal and external obliques mm (ant layer)

Below: Aponeuroses of internal and external obliques + transverse abdominis mm

18

What forms the posterior rectus sheath layer above the arcuate line? Below?

Above: Aponeuroses of internal oblique + transverse abdominis mm (post layer)

Below: Rectus abdominis is in contact w/transversalis fascia

19

What is the arcuate line?
What is an event takes place there?

- Marks inferior limit of posterior rectus sheath
- It's where the inferior epigastric vessels ascend to perforate the rectus abdominis m.

20

What is the linea alba?
What forms it?
Where does it span from?

- A tendinous median raphe between the two rectus abdominis muscles
- Formed by the fusion of the aponeuroses of the external oblique, internal oblique, and transverse abdominal muscles
- Extends from the xiphoid process to the pubic symphysis.

21

What is the linea semilunaris?

A curved line along the lateral border of the rectus abdominis

22

By what week of pregnancy have the testes descended retroperitoneally, from superior lumbar region to post abd wall to deep inguinal rings?

26 weeks

23

What changes are going on in the fetus as the testes descend, dragging vessels and nerves from the post abd wall?

Fetal pelvis enlarges, body/trunk elongates

24

What is the gubernaculum testes?

A mesenchymal band that extends from the caudal part of testis along the course of its descent (in the inguinal canal) to blend with the scrotal fascia

25

What is the umbilical dermatome?

T10

26

What branches of what artery supply the ant abd wall's upper half?

Internal thoracic a, branches into musculophrenic and superior epigastric aa.

27

What branch of what artery supply the ant abd wall's lower half?

External iliac a branches into inferior epigastric a.

28

What is the processus vaginalis?

A diverticulum or outpouching of the peritoneum which develops ventral to the gubernaculum

29

What does the gubernaculum testes do for the processus vaginalis during descent of the testes?
What does it do for the testis?

The gubernaculum forms a path through the anterior abdominal wall for the processus vaginalis to follow during formation of the inguinal canal.
- It anchors the testis to the scrotum and guides its descent into the scrotum.

30

What is trailing the testis during descent?

Ductus deferens