Flashcards in Lungs Deck (43):
At which cartilage/vertebra does the trachea begin?
Cricoid cartilage (C6)
At what level does the trachea bifurcate?
T4/T5 (sternal angle)
What is the carina of the trachea?
Ridge that separates L and R bronchus
How are the L and R primary bronchi different?
Right is larger, more vertical, and shorter than left
What is the epiarteriole bronchus?
Superior branch of right primary bronchus that supplies superior lobe of right lung
- AKA superior lobar bronchus
What are the main sections of the lung called?
How many aa. are each supplied by?
Where are the vv. located?
- Each supplied by single a.
- Vv. located in septa separating the segments
How many lobes do R and L lungs have?
R: 3 lobes
L: 2 lobes
How many broncho-pulmonary segments do R and L lungs have?
R: 10 broncho-pulmonary segments
L: 8 broncho-pulmonary segments
What makes larger grooves in R lung?
Trachea, esophagus, inf vena cava
What makes larger grooves in L lung?
Heart, aorta and left subclavian a.
In which lung do you find the cardiac notch and lingula? Where specifically is the lingula?
- Lingula: lower portion of upper lobe
What aa. supply the lungs?
Where do they branch from?
- Bronchial aa.
- Branch from aorta and posterior intercostal aa.
Describe the lymphatic drainage of the lungs.
Pulmonary nodes to tracheobronchial nodes to brachiomediastinal nodes
What divides the superior and inferior lobes of the left lung?
What divides the superior and middle lobes of the right lung?
What divides the middle and inferior lobes of the right lung?
What is the hyparteriole bronchus?
Inferior branch of right primary bronchus that supplies middle and lower lobes of right lung
- AKA bronchus intermidius
What is the root of the lung? Function?
Root is that part of the lung where things come and go
- Connects medial lung surface to trachea and heart
What is the hilum of the lung? What's contained in it?
Hilum is the content of stuff entering the lung
- Contains the main bronchus, pulmonary artery/veins, bronchial vessels, nerves and lymphatics
What layers surround each root?
The reflection of the parietal and visceral pleura
What is the pulmonary ligament?
The parietal pleura surrounding the root of the lung and extends downwards from the hilum in a fold (it is this fold)
Describe the layout of vessels in the hilum from the lung's medial view.
What's different about the R vs L lung here?
Sup: pulmonary aa.
Ant/inf: pulmonary vv.
Right lung has entrance of both eparteriole and hyparteriole bronchi.
Describe the innervation of the lungs.
The pulmonary plexus comprises parasympathetic (C.N. X) and sympathetic components.
Describe adult respiration in general terms of what changes the volume.
a. the diaphragm moves down
b. anterior (upper) thoracic wall moves anteriorly
c. lower (lateral ) thoracic wall moves laterally
Describe child respiration in general terms of what changes the volume.
a. the major component consists of the diaphragm moving down
b. the ribs in the child are nearly horizontal and thus the rib displacement is limited
What's b/w the visceral and parietal pleura?
The pleural space/cavity containing a thin layer of serous fluid.
Where is the parietal pleura?
Lines internal surface of T wall
Where is the visceral pleura?
Lines the lungs
What are the different surfaces of the parietal pleura?
Costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic, cupola
What is the cupola? What's it suspended by?
- The continuation of the costal and mediastinal parts of the pleura over the apex of the lung (AKA parietal pleura in root of neck)
- Sibson's fascia
Where is the costodiaphragmatic recess?
Posterior/inferior tip of pleural cavity
Where is the costomediastinal recess?
Anterior pleural cavity b/w ribs and mediastinum
From an anterior view, what are the 3 lines we can divide the thorax into?
What about from the lateral view?
- Midsternal, midclavicular, and anterior axillary lines
- Anterior, mid, and posterior axillary lines
What are the 5 surface projections of visceral pleura on the ribs?
a. rib 2 - reaches midline
b. rib 4(L) - cardiac notch
c. rib 6 - mid-clavicular line
d. rib 8 - mid-axillary line
e. rib 10 - posteriorly
What are the 6 surface projections of parietal pleura on the ribs?
a. rib 2 - reaches midline
b. rib 4(L) - bare area
c. rib 6 - reflects along costal arch
d. rib 8 - mid-clavicular line
e. rib 10 - mid-axillary line
f. rib 12 - posteriorly
At the midclavicular line, the inferior border of the visceral pleura is the ___ rib and for the parietal pleura it's the ___ rib.
At the midaxillary line, the inferior border of the visceral pleura is the ___ rib and for the parietal pleura it's the ___ rib.
At the scapular line, the inferior border of the visceral pleura is the ___ rib and for the parietal pleura it's the ___ rib.
What's contained in the posterior mediastinum?
c. vagus n.
d. azygos and hemiazygos v.
e. thoracic duct
f. sympathetic chain
What vessels pass through the diaphragm and where?
I 8 10 eggs at noon
Inferior vena cava: T8
Aorta (descending): T12
What do the vagus nn. follow to get into abd?
Where is the azygos v. and what does it drain into, typically?
Runs up right side of thoracic vertebral column, draining into the SUPERIOR vena cava