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Flashcards in Lungs Deck (43):
1

At which cartilage/vertebra does the trachea begin?

Cricoid cartilage (C6)

2

At what level does the trachea bifurcate?

T4/T5 (sternal angle)

3

What is the carina of the trachea?

Ridge that separates L and R bronchus

4

How are the L and R primary bronchi different?

Right is larger, more vertical, and shorter than left

5

What is the epiarteriole bronchus?

Superior branch of right primary bronchus that supplies superior lobe of right lung
- AKA superior lobar bronchus

6

What are the main sections of the lung called?
How many aa. are each supplied by?
Where are the vv. located?

Broncho-pulmonary segments
- Each supplied by single a.
- Vv. located in septa separating the segments

7

How many lobes do R and L lungs have?

R: 3 lobes
L: 2 lobes

8

How many broncho-pulmonary segments do R and L lungs have?

R: 10 broncho-pulmonary segments
L: 8 broncho-pulmonary segments

9

What makes larger grooves in R lung?

Trachea, esophagus, inf vena cava

10

What makes larger grooves in L lung?

Heart, aorta and left subclavian a.

11

In which lung do you find the cardiac notch and lingula? Where specifically is the lingula?

Left lung
- Lingula: lower portion of upper lobe

12

What aa. supply the lungs?
Where do they branch from?

- Bronchial aa.
- Branch from aorta and posterior intercostal aa.

13

Describe the lymphatic drainage of the lungs.

Pulmonary nodes to tracheobronchial nodes to brachiomediastinal nodes

14

What divides the superior and inferior lobes of the left lung?

Oblique fissure

15

What divides the superior and middle lobes of the right lung?

Horizontal fissure

16

What divides the middle and inferior lobes of the right lung?

Oblique fissure

17

What is the hyparteriole bronchus?

Inferior branch of right primary bronchus that supplies middle and lower lobes of right lung
- AKA bronchus intermidius

18

What is the root of the lung? Function?

Root is that part of the lung where things come and go
- Connects medial lung surface to trachea and heart

19

What is the hilum of the lung? What's contained in it?

Hilum is the content of stuff entering the lung
- Contains the main bronchus, pulmonary artery/veins, bronchial vessels, nerves and lymphatics

20

What layers surround each root?

The reflection of the parietal and visceral pleura

21

What is the pulmonary ligament?

The parietal pleura surrounding the root of the lung and extends downwards from the hilum in a fold (it is this fold)

22

Describe the layout of vessels in the hilum from the lung's medial view.

What's different about the R vs L lung here?

Post: bronchi/us
Sup: pulmonary aa.
Ant/inf: pulmonary vv.

Right lung has entrance of both eparteriole and hyparteriole bronchi.

23

Describe the innervation of the lungs.

The pulmonary plexus comprises parasympathetic (C.N. X) and sympathetic components.

24

Describe adult respiration in general terms of what changes the volume.

a. the diaphragm moves down
b. anterior (upper) thoracic wall moves anteriorly
c. lower (lateral ) thoracic wall moves laterally

25

Describe child respiration in general terms of what changes the volume.

a. the major component consists of the diaphragm moving down
b. the ribs in the child are nearly horizontal and thus the rib displacement is limited

26

What's b/w the visceral and parietal pleura?

The pleural space/cavity containing a thin layer of serous fluid.

27

Where is the parietal pleura?

Lines internal surface of T wall

28

Where is the visceral pleura?

Lines the lungs

29

What are the different surfaces of the parietal pleura?

Costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic, cupola

30

What is the cupola? What's it suspended by?

- The continuation of the costal and mediastinal parts of the pleura over the apex of the lung (AKA parietal pleura in root of neck)
- Sibson's fascia

31

Where is the costodiaphragmatic recess?

Posterior/inferior tip of pleural cavity

32

Where is the costomediastinal recess?

Anterior pleural cavity b/w ribs and mediastinum

33

From an anterior view, what are the 3 lines we can divide the thorax into?
What about from the lateral view?

- Midsternal, midclavicular, and anterior axillary lines

- Anterior, mid, and posterior axillary lines

34

What are the 5 surface projections of visceral pleura on the ribs?

a. rib 2 - reaches midline
b. rib 4(L) - cardiac notch
c. rib 6 - mid-clavicular line
d. rib 8 - mid-axillary line
e. rib 10 - posteriorly

35

What are the 6 surface projections of parietal pleura on the ribs?

a. rib 2 - reaches midline
b. rib 4(L) - bare area
c. rib 6 - reflects along costal arch
d. rib 8 - mid-clavicular line
e. rib 10 - mid-axillary line
f. rib 12 - posteriorly

36

At the midclavicular line, the inferior border of the visceral pleura is the ___ rib and for the parietal pleura it's the ___ rib.

6th, 8th

37

At the midaxillary line, the inferior border of the visceral pleura is the ___ rib and for the parietal pleura it's the ___ rib.

8th, 10th

38

At the scapular line, the inferior border of the visceral pleura is the ___ rib and for the parietal pleura it's the ___ rib.

10th, 12th

39

What's contained in the posterior mediastinum?

a. aorta
b. esophagus
c. vagus n.
d. azygos and hemiazygos v.
e. thoracic duct
f. sympathetic chain

40

What vessels pass through the diaphragm and where?

I 8 10 eggs at noon
Inferior vena cava: T8
Esophagus: T10
Aorta (descending): T12

41

What do the vagus nn. follow to get into abd?

Esophagus

42

Where is the azygos v. and what does it drain into, typically?

Runs up right side of thoracic vertebral column, draining into the SUPERIOR vena cava

43

How many bronchiole aa. go to the left and right lungs?

Right: 1
Left: 2