Flashcards in antarctica protection Deck (42)
who monitors the concepts of resilience, adaptation and mitigation?
scientific committee of antarctic research
what is ecosystem resilience/
the ability of an ecosystem to recover from a severe disturbance by resisting damage and returning to an equilibrium position
how can plants be resilient?
it may be linked to adaptation and their ability to bounce back from severe changes in the environment t
what are endemic species?
species that only live in one particular place
how does mitigation take place
through human intervention to eliminate or reduce risks and hazards
what is the main body of governance for antarctic?
the antarctica treaty system
who signed the treaty in 1959?
12 countries including uk and new zealand
what did the ATS grant?
free access and research rights so that countries could work together for common causes of scientific research and exchange ideas
what are regulations put forward by the ATS?
-that antarctica should be used only be used exclusively for peaceful purposes, military uses are prohibited
-guarantees free scientific research
-prohibits nuclear explosions and testing
-parties must give advance notice of research and expeditions
what is significant about the ATS?
since 1961 it has been recognised as one of the most successful international agreements
what is the ATCM?
the annual antarctica treaty consultive meetings in which the system is governed and disputes are spoken of
why is the antarctica treaty now a system?
it has evolved to contain a number of complex components
what other agreements are now included in the ATS?
-conservation of antarctica seals
why has membership of the ATS continued to grow?
as it states that any member of the UN can request to join
what are consultative parties in the ATS?
they are original signatories or parties that carry out substantial research
28 in total
how many signatures does the ATS now have?
when was the madrid protocol signed?
what is the point in the MP?
to give extra protection in antarctic and to especially protect against mineral exploitation
what was proposed in 1988 linked with minerals?
the antarctica mineral convention which proposed that mineral extraction might be possible but it never went ahead
(madrid protocol protects against this idea)
who refused the antarctica mineral convention and what did this lead to?
france and australia and lead to the MP
what doe the MP designate antarctica as?
a natural reserve devoted to peace and science
what does the MP prohibit?
-mining or mineral exploitation
what does the MP state about waste?
that any waste produced must be sent back to the country of origin
how can the prohibition of mining in antarctica be changed MP?
if all members agree to modify the protocol
when will the next review of mining prohibition take place MP?
inn fifty years
what % of parties have to agree in order for mining ban to be lifted in the MP?
what is the IWC?
the international whaling committee
a global body responsible for the conservation and management of whaling
when was the IWC established
what did the IWC lead to?
an end to whaling by 1988