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Flashcards in antarctica protection Deck (42)
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1

who monitors the concepts of resilience, adaptation and mitigation?

SCAR
scientific committee of antarctic research

2

what is ecosystem resilience/

the ability of an ecosystem to recover from a severe disturbance by resisting damage and returning to an equilibrium position

3

how can plants be resilient?

it may be linked to adaptation and their ability to bounce back from severe changes in the environment t

4

what are endemic species?

species that only live in one particular place

5

how does mitigation take place

through human intervention to eliminate or reduce risks and hazards

6

what is the main body of governance for antarctic?

the antarctica treaty system

7

who signed the treaty in 1959?

12 countries including uk and new zealand

8

what did the ATS grant?

free access and research rights so that countries could work together for common causes of scientific research and exchange ideas

9

what are regulations put forward by the ATS?

-that antarctica should be used only be used exclusively for peaceful purposes, military uses are prohibited
-guarantees free scientific research
-prohibits nuclear explosions and testing
-parties must give advance notice of research and expeditions

10

what is significant about the ATS?

since 1961 it has been recognised as one of the most successful international agreements

11

what is the ATCM?

the annual antarctica treaty consultive meetings in which the system is governed and disputes are spoken of

12

why is the antarctica treaty now a system?

it has evolved to contain a number of complex components

13

what other agreements are now included in the ATS?

-madrid protocol
-conservation of antarctica seals

14

why has membership of the ATS continued to grow?

as it states that any member of the UN can request to join

15

what are consultative parties in the ATS?

they are original signatories or parties that carry out substantial research
28 in total

16

how many signatures does the ATS now have?

46

17

when was the madrid protocol signed?

in 1991

18

what is the point in the MP?

to give extra protection in antarctic and to especially protect against mineral exploitation

19

what was proposed in 1988 linked with minerals?

the antarctica mineral convention which proposed that mineral extraction might be possible but it never went ahead
(madrid protocol protects against this idea)

20

who refused the antarctica mineral convention and what did this lead to?

france and australia and lead to the MP

21

what doe the MP designate antarctica as?

a natural reserve devoted to peace and science

22

what does the MP prohibit?

-mining or mineral exploitation

23

what does the MP state about waste?

that any waste produced must be sent back to the country of origin

24

how can the prohibition of mining in antarctica be changed MP?

if all members agree to modify the protocol

25

when will the next review of mining prohibition take place MP?

inn fifty years

26

what % of parties have to agree in order for mining ban to be lifted in the MP?

75%

27

what is the IWC?

the international whaling committee
a global body responsible for the conservation and management of whaling

28

when was the IWC established

1946

29

what did the IWC lead to?

an end to whaling by 1988

30

what measures are in place in the IWC?

-complete protect for certain whale species
-designated areas for whale sanctuaries
-limits on number of whales taken
-prohibits the capture of females with calves