Anterior Abdominal Wall and Abdominal Organs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anterior Abdominal Wall and Abdominal Organs Deck (95):
1

Boundaries of abdominal wall

Superior - xiphoid process and costal margin
posterior - vertebral column
inferior - superior portions of the pelvic bone

2

Pelvis components and brief function

Fusion of three bones:
1. Ilium
2. Ischium
3. pubis
This bone serves as a site of attachment for abdominal muscles and ligaments

3

pelvic osteology

see lab notes

4

three flat muscles of anterolateral abdominal wall and what/how do they end

1. external oblique
2. Internal oblique
3. Transverse abdominis
end anteriorly in a stong sheetlike aponeurosis

5

what does the aponeurpses of the three flat muscles of the anterolateral wall form/interlace at

aponeuroses interlace at the linea alba (LA)

6

what is an aponeurosis

what the muscle fibers are replaced by anteriorly and it is a sheet-like fibrous membrane

7

external oblique muscle
attachments
innervation
action

Attachments: Ribs 5-12
LA (linea Alba), pubic tubercle, iliac crest
innervation: segmental thoracoabdominal nerves
actions:
compress, support abdominal viscera
flex and rotate to OPPOSITE SIDE
Fibers are running superior lateral to inferior medial

8

lower border of the external oblique forms...

ingual ligamentum - which passes between the ASIS and the pubic tubercle

9

inguinal ligament

thickened, underturned, INFERIOR margin of the aponeurosis of the external oblique
from the ASIS and the pubic tubercle
forms boundaries of the inguinal canal

10

ingual canal function and its openings

develops in posterior abdominal cavity
oblique, inferiormedially directed passage (4 cm long) through inferior part of anterolateral abdominal wall
how the testis were able to be externalized
1. deep internal inguinal ring - entrance to the canal
2. superficial (external) inguinal ring - exit from the inguinal canal

11

contents of the inguinal canal

Spermatic cord: ductus deferens, testicular artery, sympathetic nerve fibers
Round Ligament of uterus (female) - 'tether' to uterus

12

inguinal Hernia

more common in males than females because wider canal
intestines passes into the scrotum or the groin
could occur if there is too much pressure in the abdominal

13

internal oblique muscle
attachment, innervation, and action

Attachments:
Thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligament
ribs 10-12, LA
innervation: segmental thoracoabdominal nerves
action: compress, support abdominal viscera, flex and rotate trunk to SAME SIDE

14

Transversus Abdominis (TA) Muscle
Attachments
Innervation
Action

Internal to the internal oblique muscle
Attachment : Ribs 7-12 costal cartilage, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia to LA, pubic crest (part of symphysis)
Innervation: Segmental thoracoabdominal nerves
Action: Compress, support the abdominal viscera
These are horizontal and meant to protect

15

Transversailis fascia

Each of the three flat muscles is covered on its anterior and posterior surface by this layer of fascia

16

which layer of the transversalis fascia can we see? what is it continuous with?

layer deep to the transversus abdominus and is continuous with the fascia on the internal aspect of the abdominal wall (endoabdominal (EA) fascia)

17

what is deep to the transversalis fascia?

Extraperitoneal fascia which is a connective tissue and contains varrying amounts of fat

18

what is deep to the extraperitoneal fascia?

the peritoneum

19

Peritoneum

this is deep to the extraperitoneal fascia and is a thin serous membrane lining the abdominal walls and some viscera of the abdominal cavity

20

'TEP'

Transversalis fascia - deep to the transversus abdominous
Extraperitoneal fascia - deep to transversalis fascia
Parietal peritoneum - serous membrane lining abdominal cavity - deep to the extraperitoneal

21

Layers of fascia

Superficial layer :fatty and membranous
Deep (investing) layers: envelop muscle layers
Transversalis fascia: Underlies (deep) to the TA muscle which is continous with the endoabdominal (EA) fascia
Extraperitoneal fascia
Peritoneum

22

Rectus Abdominus
Attachment
Innervation
Action ,
Direction of fibers

Vertical
Attachments: Pubic symphysis and pubic crest to xiphoid process and costal cartilages 5-7
Innervation: segmental thoracoabdominal nerves
Action: compress, support abdominal viscera. flex trunk

23

what is significant about the rectus abdominal muscle?

IT IS SEGMENTED so it can contract in smaller units
it is segmented by the tendinous intersection

24

arcuate line

where we see a change in the direction of the fascia in the abdominal muscles (rectus sheath then transversalis fascia)

25

rectus sheath

fascia surrounding the rectus abdominus muscle

26

above arcuate line?

rectus abdominus is covered on both sides by the rectus sheath

27

below the arcuate line?

posterior surface of the rectus muscle is in direct contact with the transversalis fascia

28

Superior Abdominal wall vasculature

Superior epigastric artery- terminal branch of the internal thoracic artery

29

Lateral abdominal wall vasculature

10th and 11th posterior intercostal arteries - coming off aorta
subcostal arteries

30

Inferior abdominal wall vasculature

inferior epigastric artery (from internal iliac artery)

31

Veins of abdominal wall

same as the arteries

32

where do the superior and inferior epigastric vessels

the superior and inferior epigastric vessels enter the rectus sheath - so go in a vertical manner
but they are posterior to the rectus muscle throughout their course

33

what do you have to do to see the inferior epigastric vessels?

they are posterior to the rectus abdominus - so have to lift it up and look at the inferior aspect

34

what is significant about the diaphragm being highly arched?

some of the abdominal cavity can be deep to the ribs and thus protected like the liver and spleen

35

peritoneum

continuous BILAYER transparent serous membrane - lining the abdominopelvic cavity and invests the viscera (organs)

36

parietal peritoneum

lining the internal surface of the abdominopelvic wall (body cavity)

37

visceral peritoneum

around the viscera/organs such as the stomach and intestines

38

retroperitoneal organs

these do NOT possess a mesentary. Organs lie within the extraperitoneal layer of the abdominal wall
SADPUCKER

39

mesentery

a double layer of peritoneum that suspends some abdominal organs
from posterior coming forward

40

omentum

double-layered extension or fold of peritoneum that passes between the stomach/duodenum and adjacent organs

41

lesser omentum

connects the lesser curvature of the stomach and the proximal part of the duodenum to the liver
BETWEEN THE STOMACH/DUODENUM AND LIVER

42

greater omentum

prominent peritoneal fold fold that hangs down like an apron from the greater curvature of the stomach and proximal part of the duodenum

43

where does the greater omentum attach as it descends

anterior surface of the transverse colon and its mesentary

44

esophagus
pass through where
terminate where

continuous with the pharynx
passes through the esophogeal hiatus at the level of T10 vertabra
terminates by entering stomach at the cardiac region of the stomach

45

stomach regions

abdominal esophagus enters at cardia fundus body pyloric region

46

pyloric region

pylorus is thickened to form the pyloric spinchter into the duodenum

47

small intestine

duodenum(digestion) - jejunum - ileum(absorption)

48

T/F there are no gross anatomical features which distinguishes the three regions of the small intestine

True

49

large intestine
function and regions

Colon
Function- absorb salt and water
Regions- cecum - ascending colon - transverse colon- descending colon - sigmoid colon

50

hepatic plexure

superior to transverse colon where liver would be right above on the RIGHT SIDE

51

splenic plexure

superior to the transverse colon before descending because spleen is right above - on the LEFT SIDE

52

teniae coli
begin where? and split to what?

thickened bands of smooth muscle representing most of the longitudinal muscle coat
begin at the base of the appendix and split into three bands
run the length of the large intestine and merge again at the rectosigmoid junction

53

haustra

teniae are shorter than the intestine, the colon becomes sacculated between the tenia and form the haustra
like pouches in the large intestine

54

omentum appendages

fatty omentum-like projections are unique to large intestine

55

appendix and where does it arise

(veriform appendix)
extends from the intestines and contains masses of lymphoid tissue
arises from the posteromedial aspect of the cecum inferior to the ileocecal junction

56

liver : function and location

endocrine and exocrine functions
location: normally on the right side and deep to ribs 7-11 (small portion will cross the midline)
under the ribs but still in the abdominal cavity because of the arch of the diaphragm

57

four lobes of liver

right, left, caudate, and quadrate

58

porta hepatis

on the posterior aspect- point of entry for hepatic arteries and portal vein and point of exit for hepatic duct

59

caudate and quadrate lobe

caudate is superior on the posterior surface
quadrate is inferior of posterior surface - adjacent to the gallbladder

60

coronary ligament

connecting the liver to the inferior surface of the diaphragm

61

hepatoduodental ligament

thick free edge of the lesser omentum - between the porta hepatis of liver and the duodenum

62

what does the hepatoduodenal ligament enclose?

portal triad, few lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, and the hepatic plexus of nerves

63

hepatogastric ligament

sheetlike remainder of the lesser omentum, extends between the liver and the lesser curvature of the stomach

64

portal vein

main channel of portal venous system as it collects poorly oxygenated blood but NUTRIENT RICH BLOOD from the abdominal part of the GI tract, including the gall bladder, pancreas, and spleen - carrying them to liver

65

hepatic vein

carries filtered blood from the liver to the IVC - inferior vena cava

66

hepatic artery

the parenchyma (functional tissue) of the liver is supplied by the hepatic artery

67

portal triad

portal vein and hepatic artery enter the liver and the hepatic vein leaves to go into the IVC

68

portal vein is formed by the union of what?

splenic and superior mesenteric veins
also divides into right and left before entering the liver

69

portal vein is final common pathway for what organs?

spleen (splenic vein contributing), pancreas, gall bladder, GI tract

70

gall bladder; function and location

functionally - stores and concentrations bile
location: lies in the gallbladder fossa on the visceral surface of the liver

71

pancreas
Function
location
regions of pancreas

function: enzyme production
Location: NECK of pancreas overlies 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae
HEAD is to the right and inferior to this plane
BODY AND TAIL are to the left and superior to this level (1&2nd lumbar vertebrae)

72

ducts related to dueodenum

R+L hepatic duct to form common
cystic duct - bile from gall bladder
common bile duct from cystic and common hepatic
pancreatic- from pancreas to dueodenym

73

kidneys
function
location

function: remove water, salt, etc. from the blood
location : superior poles of the kidney lie deep to the 11th and 12th ribs
also pretty far posterior

74

T/F the right kidney is lower than the left?

TRUE

75

hilum of kidney

concave medial border where the nerves and vessels enter and exit

76

ureter from kidney

expands at the hilum and forms renal pelvis

77

how many pyramids in a typical renal medulla

6-18 medullary pyramids

78

renal papilla

apex/tip of the pyramid and points towards the hilum - it is perforated by openings of collecting ducts

79

where do collecting ducts empty into

minor calyces

80

what forms the major calyx?

several minor calyces coming together

81

renal pelvis

major calyces come together to form this - it is the expanded end of the ureter

82

suprarenal (adrenal) gland

gland that is surrounded by a dense, fibroelastic capsule of connective tissue
parenchyma of gland (functional tissue) is divided into two histologically and functionally different regions -cortex & medulla
looks like a fatty mass on top of the kidneys

83

spleen; function and location

largest lymph organ with B and T lymphocytes
Filters blood - digest bacteria and depleted red blood cells
Location: deep to left 9th through 11 ribs (doesnt usually descend inferior to the costal margin

84

spleen receives blood via?

splenic artery - sill bring you to trunk of vessels

85

branches of abdominal aorta

anterior visceral to unpaired organs (GI and spleen)
lateral visceral (paired organs - reproductive and kidneys)
posterior parietal - paired lumbar and sacral regions

86

anterior visceral arteries

Celiac trunk - foregut
superior mesenteric-midgut
inferior mesenteric - hindgut

87

celiac trunk comes off?
supplies what

comes off the abdominal aorta and supplies foregut - esophagus, stomach, duodenum, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, spleen

88

superior mesenteric artery

supplying the midgut - jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending and 2/3 transverse colon

89

inferior mesenteric artery

supplying the hindgut- 1/3 transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

90

major branches of the celiac trunk

left gastric artery
splenic artery
common hepatic artery

91

where does the right gastric artery arise from?

from the hepatic artery

92

superior mesenteric artery branches

inferior pancreatiocoduodenal artery
jejunal and ileal arteries
middle colic artery
right colic artery
ileocolic artery

93

inferior mesenteric artery branches

left colic artery
sigmoid arteries
superior rectal artery

94

lateral visceral arteries

inferior phrenic
suprarenal
renal
reproductive

95

inferior vena cava begins where and by the union of what?

begins anterior to L5 vertebra by the union of the common iliac veins