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Flashcards in Lungs and Heart Deck (62):
1

the sublaryngeal airway constitutes the...

tracheobronchial tree

2

trachea (where)

within the superior medistinum consituites the trunk of the tree
- will extend into down

3

level that the trachea bifurcates

level of the transverse thoracic plane into the main (primary) bronchi

4

main (primary) bronchi

one passes to each lung - passing inferior laterally to each lung and enter at the hilum

5

differences between the left and right main bronchus

the right is wider and shorter and RUNS MORE VERTICALLY as it passes directly into the hilum
the left passes inferolaterally and inferior to the arch of the aorta and anterior to the esophagus and thoracic aorta

6

name of a feature at the last tracheal ring and its function

carina - midline cartilage that separates the lumens of the primary bronchi

7

characteristics of the lung - and three surfaces

apex - superior blunt end of the lungs
diaphragmatic - coursing diaphragm
mediastinal - midline
costal- will follow inner surface of the ribs

8

features of the right lung

3 lobes - upper, middle, lower
2 fissures - horizontal (smaller) and oblique
Pulmonary artery will be anterior to the entrance of the bronchi

9

features of the left lung

2 lobes- upper and lower
one fissure - oblique
pulmonary artery will be superior to the entrance of bronchi at the hiatus

10

T/F the pleura covers the lungs but does not contain the lungs

TRUE - surrounded by the pleura

11

layers of pleural cavity

visceral - closest to lung - surrounding the organ
parietal - outer pleural layer - refers to the body cavity

12

pleura cavity and function

space BETWEEN THE TWO LAYERS - space allows the lungs to expand and relax

13

pulmonary trunk- recieves/ comes off of what

right ventricle

14

pulmonary trunk forms..

right and left pulmonary arteries

15

subdivisions of the pulmonary arteries

lobar and segmental arteries within the lungs (veins do this too)

16

where does gas exchange occur in the lungs

pulmonary capillaries

17

blood back to the heart after lungs through

pulmonary veins - carrying oxygenated blood blood to the left atrium of the heart

18

what can you find on mediastinal surface of lungs?

bronchus and pulmonary artery and veins

19

bronchial arteries - function and where do they arise?

supply blood for the nutrition of the supporting tissues of the lungs and visceral pleura
arteries
lungs need a designated blood supply - so these brachial arteries carry this out
typically arise from the thoracic aorta

20

bronchial veins

drain some of the blood supplied to the lungs by the bronchial arteries - the rest is drained by the pulmonary veins

21

pulmonary embolism

forms when a blood clot, fat globule, or air bubble travels in the blood to the lungs - usually from a leg vein (pooling of blood in lower extremities)

22

pathway way of a typical pulmonary embolism

usually from blood clotting in lower extremity (lack of movement) --> travels up and enters inferior vena cava --> passes through to the right side of the heart to lung in a pulmonary artery - blocking it =pulmonary embolism

23

main sources of a pulmonary embolism

blood clot
fat globule
air bubble

24

immediate result of a pulmonary embolism?

partial or complete obstruction of blood flow to the lung
-acute respiratory distress because of a major decrease in the oxygenation of blood

25

cause of acute respiratory distress?

pulmonary embolism - clot that is not allowing trasnfer of deoxy/oxy blood - so major decrease in the oxygenation of blood

26

anterior and posterior position of the heart

atria will be more posterior and the ventricles will be more anterior - when see heart you see most of the right ventricle

27

apex of heart

tip of the left ventricle

28

cardiac boundaries

1/3 of heart lies to the right of the midline and 2/3 of the heart is to the LEFT of midline (heart is shifted to the left)

29

right acute border of heart

superior vena cava, right atrium and inferior vena cava

30

inferior border of heart

delineated by the right ventricle

31

left (obtuse border)

formed by the left ventricle

32

Tip of heart

anterior posterior and to the left
atria are more posterior
(right ventricle looks like it is on the left side)

33

layers of the pericardium

fibrous pericardium
serous - which is divided into the visceral and parietal pericardium

34

fibrous pericardium

*additional layer - connective tissue covering and aiding in protection of the heart-
directly adhered to the outer surface to the parietal layer of the pericardium

35

cardiac tamponade

compression of the heart due to fluid accumulation within the pericardium
exerts an inward pressure on the heart and then it can no longer pump properly
could cause fluid to accumulate --> may not be a visible symptom after a car accident - but could be occuring
(between the pericardium)

36

tricuspid valve

separates the right atrium and right ventricle

37

Pulmonary valve

in the right ventricle
controlling flow from here to the pulmonary arteries

38

bicuspid valve

between the left atrium and left ventricle

39

aortic valve

within the left atrium - controlling blood flow into the aorta - to rest of body

40

pectinate muscles

wall of atrium - ridges and help direct the flow of blood

41

fossa ovalis

remnant of foramen ovale

42

right auricle

can increase capacity of the atrium
help if there is ever a rapid increase in blood flow

43

opening of coronary sinus

within the right atrium
bringing venous blood into the right atrium - specific to the right atrium

44

crista terminalis

between smooth and muscular portions of the inner wall of right atrium

45

chordae tendinae - and importance

stabalize valve cusps
in ventricle
KEEP VALVE CLOSED DURING VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION

46

papillary muscles

in ventricle - contract to tighten chordae tendinae

47

trabeculae carnae

muscular ridges in the ventricle

48

moderator band

within the right ventricle and functions in part of the conduction system

49

when do the papillary muscles contract

before ventricular contraction -

50

cardiac innervation

the heart rate and ejection volume are controlled by the autonomic nervous system via the cardiac plexus

51

parasympathetic division of cardiac innervation
pre and post ganglionic

slows the heart rate and reduces the stroke volume
preganglionic fibers from the vagus nerve sends fibers over the surface of the heart and to the nodal area
Pre-ganglionic fibers synapse with the POST-GANGLIONIC fibers to the myocardium

52

sympathetic cardiac innervation+ pre and post ganglionic fibers

accelerates the heart rate and increases stroke volume
pre-ganglionic cell bodies are found in the intermediolateral cell column - LATERAL HORN in the thoracic region off the spinal cord
post-ganglionic sympathetic nerves run from the upper sympathetic chain ganglia (ganglia in the peripheral) to the heart which terminate in the vicinity of the SA and AV nodes, and the ventricular musculature

53

where do the post ganglionic nerves terminate in the sympathetic stimulation to the heart?

SA, AV nodes and the ventricular musculature

54

Coronary circulation

branches from the ascending aorta- perfuses the heart muscle
branches from the right and left main coronary arteries

55

Right coronary artery branches

Right has 3 branches
branches to the sinoatrial nodal artery
posterior interventriuclar artery - wraps around to posterior
marginal artery - goes along the inferior base of heart

56

left coronary artery branches

gives off two branches
LAD aka the anterior interventricular artery (most likely to be effected)
and the circumflex artery - continue to wrap around the left

57

coronary sinus receives blood from?

great cardiac vein
middle cardiac vein
small cardiac vein

58

right atrium receives blood from in cardiac veins?

anterior cardiac veins

59

what runs with the great cardiac vein?

LAD or the anterior interventricular artery (from left coronary)

60

what runs with the middle cardiac vein?

posterior interventricular artery (from the right coronary artery)

61

what runs with the small cardiac vein?

the marginal artery - from the right coronary artery

62

coronary artery by pass graft

if blockage - there is impaired perfusion distal to the sight
you can use a catheder to remove the plaque and attempt to dislodge it - this could turn out bad as it could then get stuck somewhere else
*TAKE SUPERFICIAL VEIN FROM ANOTHER PART of the body and tie on spot DISTAL to the blockage