Mediastinum Flashcards Preview

Gross Anatomy > Mediastinum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mediastinum Deck (30):

pulmonary cavities

lateral, lie on either side of the mediastinum


mediastinum and divisions

central compartment
inferior has 3 - anterior middle and the posterior


superior mediastinum

from oblique plane through jugular notch and T1 vertebrae (superiorly) to a horizontal plane through the sternal angle and T4/T5 intervertebral disc (iv) inferiorly
ends at the sternal angle


inferior mediastinum

from sternal angle and T4/T5 (IV disc) superiorly to the diaphragm inferiorly



Superior and anterior mediastinum
most anterior structure in the superior mediastinum as it is immediatley deep to the manubrium
primary lymphoid organ
Begins atrophy after puberty


Great vessels (arteries and veins)
just list them

Great arteries
1. Arch of aorta
2. Brachiocephalic trunk
3.left common carotid
4. left subclavian (left because heart is offset to the left)

Great veins
R and left brachiocephalic veins
Superior vena cava


aortic arch is a continuation of...
and describe its region

continuation of ascending aorta
begins at the level of the sternal angle (2nd sternocostal joint)
ascends anterior to RIGHT pulmonary artery and trachea (before going posterior)
continuous with the descending thoracic aorta (which passes posterior to root of left lung)


aortic arch branches

brachiocephalic trunk (1st branch) - Right common carotid
Right subclavian
left common carotid - 2nd branch
left subclavian- 3rd branch


branches of the brachiocephalic trunk

right common carotid
right subclavian


T/F the aortic arch is anterior to the right pulmonary artery but posterior to the left pulmonary artery



what forms the right and left brachiocephalic veins and what do they unite to form?

The right and left brachiocephalic veins are from the union of the right and left subclavian and internal jugular vein

they will form the superior vena cava -drain into heart


SVC is fromed at what level from what
where does it end?

Superior vena cava is formed at the level of the first costal cartilage (in superior mediastinum) and then descends at level of 3rd costal cartilage
(*passes into the middle mediastinum at sternal angel/2nd costal cartilage)
The SVC is formed from the right and left brachiocephalic veins which are formed from the R and L internal jugular vein and the R and L subclavian vein


function of SVC

returns blood from structures superior to the diaphragm
(except the heart and lungs)


left recurrent laryngeal nerve

as left vagus nerve passes anterior to the aortic arch it gives off the left recurrent laryngeal nerve- it passes around the aortic arch, before ascending between the trachea and esophagus to reach the larnyx


location of vagus in the superior mediastinum

anterior to the aortic arch


location of vagus in realtion to lung

posteiror - now in the posterior mediastinum


vagus contributions

pulmonary plexus (lungs)
inferiorly to esophageal plexus
anterior to vagus trunk (main)


right vagus nerve contribution to the vagal trunk

posterior vagal trunk (left vagus does more anterior vagal trunk)


course of right vagus

in superior will descend posterior to the superior vena cava and along the right margin of the trachea and will pass to the posterior aspect of the lung (posteiror mediastinum)


what level do the esophagus and trachea originate at?



what level does the esophagus end

T11- goes out of the diapgragm at t10


when does the trachea end?

at the sternal angle- so does not pass into the inferior mediastinum


thoracic duct drains?

conveys most lymph of body to venous system except Right upper quadrant - right neck, upper extremity


extension of the thoracic duct

from t12 at the cistyerni chyli to the neck


important branches off of the thoracic aorta

superior phrenic arteries
posterior intercostal arteries
esophogeal arteries
bronchial arteries
pericardial branches


posterior mediastinum

portion of thoracic duct (rest in superior) - goes from t12 up into neck at the junction of the internal jugular vein and the left subclavian
esophagus + plexus
thoracic aorta -after arch to t12
azygous and hemiazygous
sympathetic chain (thoracic portion)
greater, lesser, and least splanchnic nerves


sensory innervation of the phrenic nerve

sensory to the pericardium, mediastinal pleura, and the disphragm


course of the phrenic nerves in the superior mediastinum

anterior to the subclavian arteries and posterior to the subclavian veins - then enter the superior mediastinum


course of pericardiacophrenic vessels

these travel with the phrenic nerves and with the phrenic nerves will take an anterior course over the lungs and descend into the middle mediastinum BETWEEN THE FIBROUS PERICARDIUM AND THE MEDIASTINAL PLEURA


Contents of the anterior mediastinum

lyphatic vessels and lymph nodes
mediastinal branches of the internal thoracic vessels
loose connective tissue
smallest subdivision
sternum - anterior with pericardium posteriorly