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Flashcards in Anthropology Lecture 1 Deck (31):
1

society

large system of social interaction

2

culture

language, symbols, and collective knowledge of a society

3

technology

tools, techniques, and associated social organizations and group processes

4

Raymond Williams' three uses of culture

noun describing intellectual, spiritual, and aesthetic development since 1800s; noun indicating a particular way of life (favored by anthropologists); noun describing works and practices of intellectual and artistic creativity

5

Raymond Williams' definition of culture

shared code of meaning acted out publicly in daily life, combining the material and the symbolic

6

Sir Edward B. Tylor and 18th century views of culture

as synonym for civilization, distinguishing between Europeans and colonies

7

father of anthropology

Sir Edward B. Tylor

8

believed culture was a body of information which different human groups had more or less of

Sir Edward B. Tylor

9

introduced the concept of culture as an explanation for the differences among societies

Sir Edward B. Tylor

10

18th and 19th century notions of culture reflected

inequality in Europe and between Europe and colonies

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in the 18th and 19th century, culture was ____ contrasted with ____.

civilization/nature

12

18th and 19th century indigenous peoples were first portrayed as ____ and later as ____.

primitive/noble savages

13

saw shared meaning through symbols and practices in societies as evidence of culture (and in this century)

Emile Durkheim (20th century)

14

20th century sociologists saw culture as

symbols and practices tying societies together

15

influential contributors to 20th century view of culture as being influenced by people rather than environments

Julian Steward and Leslie White

16

coined "cultural ecology"

Julian Steward

17

Franz Boas' view of cultures

historical particularism, cultures result from specific histories

18

19th and early 20th century view of dominant force in shaping cultures

environmental determinism

19

view held by social scientists by 1920s

people, not environments, create culture, and culture is how people adapt to environments

20

study of relationship between a society and its environment

cultural ecology

21

when other disciplines began using culture

1970s

22

cultural system, a part of functionalism

societies have four elements: biology and behavior which ADAPTS to the environment, personalities of GOAL-SEEKING people, groups' varying INTEGRATION, and LATENT PATTERNS

23

wrote about cultural system (and when)

Talcott Parsons (1970s)

24

what current sociologists dislike about some old theories

leave out role of culture and human agency

25

Weber wrote about

protestant ethic and how it supports capitalism, accumulation of goods meaning one is saved

26

social heterogeneity

one can't apply one label to a whole society because of individual differences

27

culture definition

learned, symbolic, and adaptive customs, knowledge, objects, behavior, ideas, values, and artifacts of groups

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anthropologists' focus in culture

symbols

29

sociologists' focus in culture

measurement of culture and materials

30

cockfight guy who used symbolic anthropology

Clifford Geertz

31

thick description dude

Clifford Geertz