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Flashcards in Anthropology Midterm Review Questions Deck (10):
1

Raymond Williams argues that the confusion of meaning inherent in culture lies in the complex relationship between our ____ and ____.

material/symbolic worlds

2

Throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, culture was viewed by most Western intellectuals as synonymous with ____.

civilization

3

The theory that there is a single universal human culture that can be found to a greater or lesser extent among all the world's peoples and that all societies follow the same stages of cultural development is referred to as ____.

unilineal evolution

4

The theoretical perspective that argues that the physical environment directly shapes culture is referred to as ____.

environmental determinism

5

According to sociologist Talcott Parsons, the norms and values that regulate social action are part of which major element of society?

the cultural system

6

Clifford Geertz viewed culture as "a shared code of meaning that is acted out publicly." His method of interpreting the guiding symbols of culture is referred to as ____.

thick description

7

Clifford Geertz argued that the primary importance of public symbols (such as the cockfight) is that they serve as social events (rituals) where ____.

members of a society communicate their worldview (their values) to one another

8

Volti views technology as a system because ____.

it involves the energies and skills of many individuals; it requires an existing base of knowledge; it generally requires complementary technologies; it involves a combination of devices and organizational strutures

9

According to Neil Postman, the cultural classification in which society becomes only loosely controlled by social custom and religious tradition is referred to as a ____.

technocracy

10

According to Neil Postman, the cultural classification in which belief systems guide the invention of technologies and direct their use is referred to as ____.

tool-using